Theory in Biosciences

, Volume 135, Issue 3, pp 111–119 | Cite as

Diploid male dynamics under different numbers of sexual alleles and male dispersal abilities

  • Luiz R. R. Faria
  • Elaine Della Giustina Soares
  • Eduardo do Carmo
  • Paulo Murilo Castro de Oliveira
Original Paper


Insects in the order Hymenoptera (bees, wasps and ants) present an haplodiploid system of sexual determination in which fertilized eggs become females and unfertilized eggs males. Under single locus complementary sex-determination (sl-CSD) system, the sex of a specimen depends on the alleles at a single locus: when diploid, an individual will be a female if heterozygous and male if homozygous. Significant diploid male (DM) production may drive a population to an extinction scenario called “diploid male vortex”. We aimed at studying the dynamics of populations of a sl-CSD organism under several combinations of two parameters: male flight abilities and number of sexual alleles. In these simulations, we evaluated the frequency of DM and a genetic diversity measure over 10,000 generations. The number of sexual alleles varied from 10 to 100 and, at each generation, a male offspring might fly to another random site within a varying radius R. Two main results emerge from our simulations: (i) the number of DM depends more on male flight radius than on the number of alleles; (ii) in large geographic regions, the effect of males flight radius on the allelic diversity turns out much less pronounced than in small regions. In other words, small regions where inbreeding normally appears recover genetic diversity due to large flight radii. These results may be particularly relevant when considering the population dynamics of species with increasingly limited dispersal ability (e.g., forest-dependent species of euglossine bees in fragmented landscapes)


Diploid male vortex Haplodiploidy Inbreeding  Hymenoptera Population dynamics Sl-CSD 



We are grateful to Suzana Moss de Oliveira for a critical reading of the manuscript


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luiz R. R. Faria
    • 1
  • Elaine Della Giustina Soares
    • 1
  • Eduardo do Carmo
    • 1
  • Paulo Murilo Castro de Oliveira
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Instituto Latino-Americano de Ciências da Vida e da NaturezaUniversidade Federal da Integração Latino-AmericanaFoz do IguaçuBrazil
  2. 2.Instituto Mercosul de Estudos AvançadosUniversidade Federal da Integração Latino-AmericanaFoz do IguaçuBrazil
  3. 3.Instituto de FísicaUniversidade Federal FluminenseNiteróiBrazil

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