Journal of Population Ageing

, Volume 10, Issue 4, pp 323–342 | Cite as

Living Arrangements of Elderly: Evidence from Household Income Expenditure Survey

  • Saidatulakmal Mohd
  • Abdelhak Senadjki
  • Norma Mansor


An increase in the number of elderly has many social implications and demands from a nation to ensure that their well-being and welfare are well taken care of. The purpose of this paper is to determine the factors influencing living arrangements for the elderly in Malaysia. The traditional notion that children will have to take care of their parents when they grow old is slowly changing due to urbanization and high cost of living. We see that more and more of the elderly are independently taking care of themselves. The 2009 Household Income Expenditure (HIES) survey data was used to understand the living arrangements of Malaysia's elderly population. The study found that 64.17 % of elderly co-resided with at least one adult child, indicating that familial support was still important despite modernization. Almost a quarter of the elderly live by themselves, either with spouse only (17.94 %) or lived alone (6.18 %). A multinomial logistic regression was performed to understand the factors influencing the living arrangements of the elderly. Predictive probability was run to compute the marginal change in the probability of living arrangement. It is predicted that male elderly and elderly who lived in rural area are more likely to live alone while older and Chinese elderly are more likely to co-reside with an adult child. As would be expected, still married elderly is more likely to co-reside with their spouses. Elderly who is still working and having received at least primary education is least likely to co-reside with an adult child.


Elderly Living arrangements Multinomial logit Socio-demographic factors 



This study benefits from the financial support provided by the Social Security Research Center (SSRC), Universiti Malaya, Malaysia, Grant Number UM.E/SSRC/628/3/3. The author thanks Afifuddin Hashim for his assistance in data decoding, Economic Planning Unit and Department of Statistics Malaysia for assistance in providing the data.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Social SciencesUniversiti Sains MalaysiaPenangMalaysia
  2. 2.Universiti Tunku Abdul RahmanPerakMalaysia
  3. 3.Social Security Research CentreUniversiti MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia

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