Journal of Population Ageing

, Volume 8, Issue 1–2, pp 71–99 | Cite as

Awareness of Memory Ability and Change: (In)Accuracy of Memory Self-Assessments in Relation to Performance

  • Elizabeth Hahn Rickenbach
  • Stefan Agrigoroaei
  • Margie E. Lachman


Little is known about subjective assessments of memory abilities and decline among middle-aged adults or their association with objective memory performance in the general population. In this study we examined self-ratings of memory ability and change in relation to episodic memory performance in two national samples of middle-aged and older adults from the Midlife in the United States study (MIDUS II in 2005–06) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS; every 2 years from 2002 to 2012). MIDUS (Study 1) participants (N =3581) rated their memory compared to others their age and to themselves 5 years ago; HRS (Study 2) participants (N = 14,821) rated their current memory and their memory compared to 2 years ago, with up to six occasions of longitudinal data over 10 years. In both studies, episodic memory performance was the total number of words recalled in immediate and delayed conditions. When controlling for demographic and health correlates, self-ratings of memory abilities, but not subjective change, were related to performance. We examined accuracy by comparing subjective and objective memory ability and change. More than one third of the participants across the studies had self-assessments that were inaccurate relative to their actual level of performance and change, and accuracy differed as a function of demographic and health factors. Further understanding of self-awareness of memory abilities and change beginning in midlife may be useful for identifying early warning signs of decline, with implications regarding policies and practice for early detection and treatment of cognitive impairment.


Subjective memory ability Subjective memory change Memory self-ratings Episodic memory Memory concerns Memory complaints Accuracy of self-assessments 


  1. Aarts, S., van den Akker, M., Hajema, K. J., van Ingen, A. M., Metsemakers, J. F., Verhey, F. R., & van Boxtel, M. P. (2011). Multimorbidity and its relation to subjective memory complaints in a large general population of older adults. International Psychogeriatrics, 23(4), 616–624. doi:10.1017/S1041610210002024.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agrigoroaei, S., & Lachman, M. E. (2011). Cognitive functioning in midlife and old age: combined effects of psychosocial and behavioral factors. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 66, 130–140. doi:10.1093/geronb/gbr017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Albert, M. S., Jones, K., Savage, C. R., Berkman, L., Seeman, T., Blazer, D., & Rowe, J. W. (1995). Predictors of cognitive change in older persons: MacArthur Studies of Successful Aging. Psychology and Aging, 10, 578–589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Albert, M. S., Moss, M. B., Blacker, D., Tanzi, R., & McArdle, J. J. (2007). Longitudinal change in cognitive performance among individuals with mild cognitive impairment. Neuropsychology, 21(2), 158–169. doi:10.1037/0894-4105.21.2.158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Albert, M. S., DeKosky, S. T., Dickson, D., Dubois, B., Feldman, H. H., Fox, N. C., & Petersen, R. C. (2011). The diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s disease: recommendations from the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer’s Association workgroups on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s & Dementia, 7(3), 270–279. doi:10.1016/j.jalz.2011.03.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Alzheimer’s Association. (2014). 2014 Alzheimer’s disease facts and figures. Alzheimer’s & Dementia, 10(2), e47–e92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Amariglio, R. E., Becker, J. A., Carmasin, J., Wadsworth, L. P., Lorius, N., Sullivan, C., & Rentz, D. M. (2012). Subjective cognitive complaints and amyloid burden in cognitively normal older individuals. Neuropsychologia, 50(12), 2880–2886. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2012.08.011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bäckman, L., Jones, S., Berger, A.-K., Laukka, E. J., & Small, B. J. (2005). Cognitive impairment in preclinical Alzheimer’s disease: a meta-analysis. Neuropsychology, 19(4), 520–531. doi:10.1037/0894-4105.19.4.520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. American Psychologist, 37(2), 122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bassett, S. S., & Folstein, M. F. (1993). Memory complaint, memory performance, and psychiatric diagnosis: a community study. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology, 6(2), 105–111. doi:10.1177/089198879300600207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Beaudoin, M., & Desrichard, O. (2011). Are memory self-efficacy and memory performance related? A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 137(2), 211–241. doi:10.1037/a0022106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Braak, H., & Braak, E. (1997). Frequency of stages of Alzheimer-related lesions in different age categories. Neurobiology of Aging, 18(4), 351–357. doi:10.1016/S0197-4580(97)00056-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Caracciolo, B., Gatz, M., Xu, W., Pedersen, N. L., & Fratiglioni, L. (2012). Differential distribution of subjective and objective cognitive impairment in the population: a nation-wide twin-study. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 29(2), 393–403. doi:10.3233/JAD-2011-111904.Google Scholar
  14. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2013). Self-reported increased confusion or memory loss and associated functional difficulties among adults aged >/= 60 years. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 62, 347–350.Google Scholar
  15. Coley, N., Ousset, P., Andrieu, S., Mathiex-Fortunet, H., & Vellas, B. (2008). Memory complaints to the general practitioner: data from the GuidAge study. The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, 12(1), S66–S72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Comijs, H., Deeg, D., Dik, M., Twisk, J., & Jonker, C. (2002). Memory complaints; the association with psycho-affective and health problems and the role of personality characteristics: a 6-year follow-up study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 72(2), 157–165. doi:10.1016/S0165-0327(01)00453-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Corner, L., & Bond, J. (2004). Being at risk of dementia: fears and anxieties of older adults. Journal of Aging Studies, 18(2), 143–155. doi:10.1016/j.jaging.2004.01.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Crane, M., Bogner, H., Brown, G., & Gallo, J. (2007). The link between depressive symptoms, negative cognitive bias and memory complaints in older adults. Aging & Mental Health, 11(6), 708–715. doi:10.1080/13607860701368497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Crimmins, E. M., Kim, J. K., Langa, K. M., & Weir, D. R. (2011). Assessment of cognition using surveys and neuropsychological assessment: the Health and Retirement Study and the Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 66(suppl 1), i162–i171. doi:10.1093/geronb/gbr048.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Crumley, J. J., Stetler, C. A., & Horhota, M. (2014). Examining the relationship between subjective and objective memory performance in older adults: a meta-analysis. Psychology and Aging, 29(2), 250–263. doi:10.1037/a0035908.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Daviglus, M. L., Bell, C. C., Berrettini, W., Bowen, P. E., Connolly, E. S., Cox, N. J., Dunbar-Jacob, J. M., Granieri, E. C., Hunt, G., McGarry, K., Patel, D., Potosky, A. L., Sanders-Bush, E., Silberberg, D., & Trevisan, M. (2010). NIH State-of-the-Science Conference Statement: preventing Alzheimer’s disease and cognitive decline. NIH Consensus and State-of-the-Science Statements, 27(4), 1–30.Google Scholar
  22. Dixon, R. A. (2000). The concept of metamemory: Cognitive, developmental, and clinical issues. In G. E. Berrios & J. R. Hodges (Eds.), Memory disorders in psychiatric practice (pp. 47–57). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dubois, B., Feldman, H. H., Jacova, C., DeKosky, S. T., Barberger-Gateau, P., Cummings, J., & Scheltens, P. (2007). Research criteria for the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease: revising the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria. The Lancet Neurology, 6(8), 734–746. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(07)70178-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dux, M. C., Woodard, J. L., Calamari, J. E., Messina, M., Arora, S., Chik, H., & Amore, M. (2008). The moderating role of negative affect on objective verbal memory performance and subjective memory complaints in healthy older adults. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 14(2), 327–336. doi:10.1017/S1355617708080363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Folstein, M. F., Folstein, S. E., & McHugh, P. R. (1975). “Mini-mental state”: a practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12, 189–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. González, H. M., Bowen, M. E., & Fisher, G. G. (2008). Memory decline and depressive symptoms in a nationally representative sample of older adults: the Health and Retirement Study (1998–2004). Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 25(3), 266–271. doi:10.1159/000115976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Grut, M., Jorm, A. F., Fratiglioni, L., Forsell, Y., Viitanen, M., & Winblad, B. (1993). Memory complaints of elderly people in a population survey: variation according to dementia stage and depression. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 41(12), 1295–1300.Google Scholar
  28. Guenther, C. L., & Alicke, M. D. (2010). Deconstructing the better-than-average effect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 99(5), 755–770. doi:10.1037/a0020959.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hahn, E. A., & Lachman, M. E. (2014). Everyday experiences of memory problems and control: the adaptive role of selective optimization with compensation in the context of memory decline. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition. doi:10.1080/13825585.2014.888391. Advance online publication.Google Scholar
  30. Hall, C. B., Derby, C., LeValley, A., Katz, M. J., Verghese, J., & Lipton, R. B. (2007). Education delays accelerated decline on a memory test in persons who develop dementia. Neurology, 69(17), 1657–1664. doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000278163.82636.30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Heeringa, S. G., & Connor, J. H. (1995). Technical description of the Health and Retirement Survey sample design. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Herlitz, A., & Rehnman, J. (2008). Sex differences in episodic memory. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 17(1), 52–56. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8721.2008.00547.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hertzog, C., & Dunlosky, J. (2011). Metacognition in later adulthood: spared monitoring can benefit older adults’ self-regulation. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 20, 167–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Herzog, A. R., & Wallace, R. B. (1997). Measures of cognitive functioning in the AHEAD study. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 52B(Special Issue), 37–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hulur, G., Hertzog, C., Pearman, A., Ram, N., & Gerstorf, D. (2014). Longitudinal associations of subjective memory with memory performance and depressive symptoms: between-person and within-person perspectives. Psychology and Aging. doi:10.1037/a0037619.Google Scholar
  36. Jessen, F., Amariglio, R. E., van Boxtel, M., Breteler, M., Ceccaldi, M., Chetelat, G., Dubois, B., Dufouil, C., Ellis, K. A., van der Flier, W. M., Glodzik, L., van Harten, A. C., de Leon, M. J., McHugh, P., Mielke, M. M., Molinuevo, J. L., Mosconi, L., Osorio, R. S., Perrotin, A., Petersen, R. C., Rabin, L. A., Rami, L., Reisberg, B., Rentz, D. M., Sachdev, P. S., de la Sayette, V., Saykin, A. J., Scheltens, P., Shulman, M. B., Slavin, M. J., Sperling, R. A., Stewart, R., Uspenskaya, O., Vellas, B., Visser, P. J., Wagner, M., & Subjective Cognitive Decline Initiative (SCD-I) Working Group. (2014). A conceptual framework for research on subjective cognitive decline in preclinical Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s & Dementia. doi:10.1016/j.jalz.2014.01.001.Google Scholar
  37. Jonker, C., Smits, C. H. M., & Deeg, D. J. H. (1997). Affect-related metamemory and memory performance in a population-based sample of older adults. Educational Gerontology, 23, 115–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Jorm, A., Christensen, H., Korten, A., Henderson, A., Jacomb, P., & Mackinnon, A. (1997). Do cognitive complaints either predict future cognitive decline or reflect past cognitive decline? A longitudinal study of an elderly community sample. Psychological Medicine, 27(1), 91–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Juster, F. T., & Suzman, R. (1995). An overview of the health and retirement study. Journal of Human Resources, 30, S7–S56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Karlamangla, A. S., Miller-Martinez, D., Aneshensel, C. S., Seeman, T. E., Wight, R. G., & Chodosh, J. (2009). Trajectories of cognitive function in late life in the United States: demographic and socioeconomic predictors. American Journal of Epidemiology, 170(3), 331–342. doi:10.1093/aje/kwp154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kohout, F. J., Berkman, L. F., Evans, D. A., & Cornoni-Huntley, J. (1993). Two shorter forms of the CES-D depression symptoms index. Journal of Aging and Health, 5(2), 179–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kruger, J., & Dunning, D. (1999). Unskilled and unaware of it: how difficulties in recognizing one’s own incompetence lead to inflated self-assessments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 1121–1134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kryscio, R. J., Abner, E. L., Cooper, G. E., Fardo, D. W., Jicha, G. A., Nelson, P. T., & Schmitt, F. A. (2014). Self-reported memory complaints: implications from a longitudinal cohort with autopsies. Neurology, 83(15), 1359–1365. doi:10.1212/WNL.0000000000000856.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lachman, M. E. (2004). Development in midlife. Annual Review of Psychology, 55, 305–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lachman, M. E., & Tun, P. A. (2008). Cognitive testing in large-scale surveys: Assessment by telephone. In S. Hofer & D. Alwin (Eds.), Handbook on cognitive aging: Interdisciplinary perspectives (pp. 506–523). Thousand Oaks, Ca: Sage Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lachman, M. E., & Weaver, S. L. (1997). The Midlife Development Inventory (MIDI) personality scales: Scale construction and scoring. Waltham, MA: Brandeis University.Google Scholar
  47. Lachman, M. E., Agrigoroaei, S., Tun, P. A., & Weaver, S. L. (2014). Monitoring cognitive functioning: psychometric properties of the brief test of adult cognition by telephone. Assessment, 21, 404–417. doi:10.1177/1073191113508807.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Langa, K. M., Plassman, B. L., Wallace, R. B., Herzog, A. R., Heeringa, S. G., Ofstedal, M. B., & Hurd, M. D. (2005). The aging, demographics, and memory study: study design and methods. Neuroepidemiology, 25(4), 181–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Langa, K. M., Llewellyn, D. J., Lang, I. A., Weir, D. R., Wallace, R. B., Kabeto, M. U., & Huppert, F. A. (2009). Cognitive health among older adults in the United States and in England. BMC Geriatrics, 9(1), 23. doi:10.1186/1471-2318-9-23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Lee, P.-L. (2014). The relationship between memory complaints, activity and perceived health status. Health and Disability, 55, 136–141. doi:10.1111/sjop.12107.Google Scholar
  51. Lee, P.-L., Hsiao, C.-H., & Wang, C.-L. (2013). Physical activity and memory complaints in middle-age Americans: results from the MIDUS study. American Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Dementias, 28(6), 600–605. doi:10.1177/1533317513494744.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. McArdle, J. J., Fisher, G. G., & Kadlec, K. M. (2007). Latent variable analyses of age trends of cognition in the Health and Retirement Study, 1992–2004. Psychology and Aging, 22(3), 525–545. doi:10.1037/0882-7974.22.3.525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Merema, M. R., Speelman, C. P., Foster, J. K., & Kaczmarek, E. A. (2012). Neuroticism (not depressive symptoms) predicts memory complaints in some community-dwelling older adults. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 21(8), 729–736. doi:10.1097/JGP.0b013e31826d6973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Mewton, L., Sachdev, P., Anderson, T., Sunderland, M., & Andrews, G. (2013). Demographic, clinical, and lifestyle correlates of subjective memory complaints in the Australian population. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. doi:10.1016/j.jagp.2013.04.004.Google Scholar
  55. Mitchell, A. J. (2008). The clinical significance of subjective memory complaints in the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment and dementia: a meta-analysis. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 23(11), 1191–1202. doi:10.1002/gps.2053.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Mitchell, A. J., Beaumont, H., Ferguson, D., Yadegarfar, M., & Stubbs, B. (2014). Risk of dementia and mild cognitive impairment in older people with subjective memory complaints: meta-analysis. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. doi:10.1111/acps.12336.Google Scholar
  57. Mol, M., Carpay, M., Ramakers, I., Rozendaal, N., Verhey, F., & Jolles, J. (2007). The effect of perceived forgetfulness on quality of life in older adults; a qualitative review. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 22(5), 393–400. doi:10.1002/gps.1686.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Mol, M., van Boxtel, M. P., Willems, D., Verhey, F. R., & Jolles, J. (2009). Subjective forgetfulness is associated with lower quality of life in middle-aged and young-old individuals: a 9-year follow-up in older participants from the Maastricht Aging Study. Aging & Mental Health, 13(5), 699–705. doi:10.1080/13607860902845541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Nasreddine, Z. S., Phillips, N. A., Bédirian, V., Charbonneau, S., Whitehead, V., Collin, I., & Chertkow, H. (2005). The Montreal Cognitive Assessment, MoCA: a brief screening tool for mild cognitive impairment. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 53(4), 695–699. doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2005.53221.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Ofstedal, M. B., Zimmer, Z. S., & Lin, H.-S. (1999). A comparison of correlates of cognitive functioning in older persons in Taiwan and the United States. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 54(5), S291–S301. doi:10.1093/geronb/54B.5.S291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Ofstedal, M. B., Fisher, G. G., & Hertzog, A. R. (2005). Documentation of cognitive functioning measures in the Health and Retirement Study. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Petersen, R. C. (2004). Mild cognitive impairment as a diagnostic entity. Journal of Internal Medicine, 256(3), 183–194. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2796.2004.01388.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Plassman, B. L., Langa, K. M., Fisher, G. G., Heeringa, S. G., Weir, D. R., Ofstedal, M. B., & Rodgers, W. L. (2008). Prevalence of cognitive impairment without dementia in the United States. Annals of Internal Medicine, 148(6), 427–434. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-148-6-200803180-00005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Plassman, B. L., Langa, K. M., McCammon, R. J., Fisher, G. G., Potter, G. G., Burke, J. R., & Unverzagt, F. W. (2011). Incidence of dementia and cognitive impairment, not dementia in the United States. Annals of Neurology, 70(3), 418–426. doi:10.1002/ana.22362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Podewils, L. J., McLay, R. N., Rebok, G. W., & Lyketsos, C. G. (2003). Relationship of self-perceptions of memory and worry to objective measures of memory and cognition in the general population. Psychosomatics, 44(6), 461–470. doi:10.1176/appi.psy.44.6.461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Radler, B. T., & Ryff, C. D. (2010). Who participates? Accounting for longitudinal retention in the MIDUS national study of health and well-being. Journal of Aging and Health, 22, 307–331. doi:10.1177/0898264309358617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Radloff, L. S. (1977). The Ces-D scale. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1(3), 385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Reid, L. M., & Maclullich, A. M. (2006). Subjective memory complaints and cognitive impairment in older people. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 22(5–6), 471–485. doi:10.1159/000096295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Rey, A. (1964). L’examen clinique en psychologie. Paris: Presses Universitaries De France.Google Scholar
  70. Roberts, J., Clare, L., & Woods, R. (2009). Subjective memory complaints and awareness of memory functioning in mild cognitive impairment: a systematic review. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 28(2), 95–109. doi:10.1159/000234911.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Roth, M., Tym, E., Mountjoy, C., Huppert, F. A., Hendrie, H., Verma, S., & Goddard, R. (1986). CAMDEX. A standardised instrument for the diagnosis of mental disorder in the elderly with special reference to the early detection of dementia. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 149(6), 698–709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Rouch, I., Anterion, C. T., Dauphinot, V., Kerleroux, J., Roche, F., Barthelemy, J. C., & Laurent, B. (2008). Cognitive complaints, neuropsychological performance and affective disorders in elderly community residents. Disability and Rehabilitation, 30(23), 1794–1802. doi:10.1080/09638280701667825.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Salthouse, T. (2009). Major issues in cognitive aging. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Seidenberg, M., Taylor, M. A., & Haitiner, A. (1994). Personality and self-report of cognitive functioning. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 9(4), 353–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Singh-Manoux, A., Kivimaki, M., Glymour, M. M., Elbaz, A., Berr, C., Ebmeier, K. P., & Dugravot, A. (2012). Timing of onset of cognitive decline: results from Whitehall II prospective cohort study. British Medical Journal, 344, d7622. doi:10.1136/Bmj.D7622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Slavin, M. J., Brodaty, H., Kochan, N. A., Crawford, J. D., Trollor, J. N., Draper, B., & Sachdev, P. S. (2010). Prevalence and predictors of “subjective cognitive complaints” in the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 18(8), 701–710. doi:10.1097/JGP.0b013e3181df49fb.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Small, B. J., Dixon, R. A., & McArdle, J. J. (2011). Tracking cognition–health changes from 55 to 95 years of age. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 66(suppl 1), i153–i161. doi:10.1093/geronb/gbq093.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Snitz, B. E., Morrow, L. A., Rodriguez, E. G., Huber, K. A., & Saxton, J. A. (2008). Subjective memory complaints and concurrent memory performance in older patients of primary care providers. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 14(6), 1004–1013. doi:10.1017/S1355617708081332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. StataCorp. (2009). Stata statistical software (Version 11). College Station, TX: StataCorp LP.Google Scholar
  80. Steffick, D. E. (2000). Documentation of affective functioning measures in the Health and Retirement Study. Ann Arbor: HRS Health Working Group.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Tun, P. A., & Lachman, M. E. (2008). Age differences in reaction time and attention in a national telephone sample of adults: education, sex, and task complexity matter. Developmental Psychology, 44, 1421–1429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Turvey, C. L., Schultz, S., Arndt, S., Wallace, R. B., & Herzog, R. (2000). Memory complaint in a community sample aged 70 and older. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 48(11), 1435–1441.Google Scholar
  83. van Harten, A. C., Smits, L. L., Teunissen, C. E., Visser, P. J., Koene, T., Blankenstein, M. A., & van der Flier, W. M. (2013). Preclinical AD predicts decline in memory and executive functions in subjective complaints. Neurology, 81(16), 1409–1416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. van Oijen, M., de Jong, F. J., Hofman, A., Koudstaal, P. J., & Breteler, M. M. B. (2007). Subjective memory complaints, education, and risk of Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s & Dementia, 3(2), 92–97. doi:10.1016/j.jalz.2007.01.011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Waldorff, F. B., Rishoj, S., & Waldemar, G. (2008). If you don’t ask (about memory), they probably won’t tell. Journal of Family Practice, 57(1), 41–44.Google Scholar
  86. Wang, P. S., Berglund, P., & Kessler, R. C. (2000). Recent care of common mental disorders in the United States. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 15(5), 284–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Ware, J. E., Jr., & Sherbourne, C. D. (1992). The MOS 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36). I. Conceptual framework and item selection. Medical Care, 30(6), 473–483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Whitehouse, P. J., & Moody, H. R. (2006). Mild cognitive impairment: a ‘hardening of the categories’? Dementia, 5(1), 11–25. doi:10.1177/1471301206059752.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Zandi, T. (2004). Relationship between subjective memory complaints, objective memory performance, and depression among older adults. American Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Dementias, 19(6), 353–360. doi:10.1177/153331750401900610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Zelinski, E. M., Burnight, K. P., & Lane, C. J. (2001). The relationship between subjective and objective memory in the oldest old: comparisons of findings from a representative and a convenience sample. Journal of Aging and Health, 13, 248–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elizabeth Hahn Rickenbach
    • 1
  • Stefan Agrigoroaei
    • 2
  • Margie E. Lachman
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PsychologySaint Anselm CollegeManchesterUSA
  2. 2.Psychological Sciences Research InstituteUniversité catholique de LouvainLouvain-la-NeuveBelgium
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyBrandeis UniversityWalthamUSA

Personalised recommendations