Journal of Population Ageing

, Volume 3, Issue 1–2, pp 17–37 | Cite as

Marginalised Care: Migrant Workers Caring for Older People in Ireland

Article

Abstract

Older adult care in Ireland is a mix of public, private, voluntary and family provision. This model is characterised by deficient funding and support structures for both care recipients and carers, leading ultimately to fragmented service delivery, both in the community and in residential care. Against this backdrop, there has been a significant and rapid growth in the number of migrant registered nurses and care assistants providing care to Irish older people. With two potentially marginalised groups now at the centre of the caring relationship, questions arise regarding the sustainability of quality of care and quality of life for both providers and recipients of care. This research study draws on the perspectives of the older person, the migrant carer and the employer to develop an understanding of migrant worker care provision within the disadvantaged ageing sector in Ireland. The paper will frame migrant care workers’ experiences within the perspective of a marginalised sector, whose central consumers, older people, are not prioritised in policy or practice. Providing evidence of disadvantage for older adults and migrant carers, the research findings demonstrate that it is necessary to improve caring experiences and conditions for both groups if quality of care is to be enhanced.

Keywords

Migrant care workers Older people Older adult care Marginalised care Quality of care 

References

  1. Alexis, O., Vydelingum, V., & Robbins, I. (2007). Engaging with a new reality: experiences of overseas minority ethnic nurses in the NHS. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 16(12), 2221–2228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson, B. (2000). Doing the dirty work? The global politics of domestic labour. Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, B., & Rogaly, B. (2005). Forced labour and migration to the UK. Report prepared by Centre on Migration, Policy and Society in conjunction with the Trades Union Congress.Google Scholar
  4. Asis, M., Milagros, B., Huang, S., & Yeoh, B. S. A. (2004). When the light of the home is abroad: unskilled female migration and the Filipino family. Journal of Tropical Geography, 25(2), 198–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barrett, A. (2005). Irish migration: Characteristics, causes, and consequences. In: Zimmermann, K. F. (Ed.), European migration: What do we know? Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Barrett, A., & Duffy, D. (2007). Are Ireland’s immigrants integrating into its labour market? Dublin: Economic and Social Research Institute.Google Scholar
  7. Barrett, A., & Rust, A. (2009). Migrant carers and older adult care: Projections of future need. In: K. Walsh, & E. O’Shea (Eds.), The role of migrant care workers in ageing societies: Context and experiences in Ireland. National University of Ireland Galway.Google Scholar
  8. Berdes, C., & Eckert, J. M. (2001). Race relations and caregiving relationships: A qualitative examination of perspectives from residents and nurse’s aides in three nursing homes. Research on Aging, 23(109), 109–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brush, B. L., Sochalski, J., & Berger, A. M. (2004). Imported care: recruiting foreign nurses to U.S. health care facilities. Health Affairs, 23(3), 78–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Buchan, J. (2007). International recruitment of nurses: policy and practice in the United Kingdom. Health Research and Educational Trust, 42(3p2), 1321–1335.Google Scholar
  11. Carlsson, M., & Rooth, D. (2007). Evidence of ethnic discrimination in the Swedish Labor market using experimental data. Labour Economics, 14, 716–729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. CSO. (2006). Census 2006. Dublin: CSO.Google Scholar
  13. CSO. (2007). Ageing in Ireland. Dublin: CSO.Google Scholar
  14. Cuban, S. (2008). Home/work: the roles of education, literacy, and learning in the networks and mobility of professional women migrant carers in Cumbria. Ethnography and Education, 3(1), 81–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Department of Enterprise, Trade and Employment (2007). Information Leaflet Concerning Working Visas/Work Authorisations for Employment in Ireland. Available at http://www.entemp.ie/. Accessed January 2008.
  16. Department of Enterprise, Trade and Employment (2009). Employment Permits Arrangements. Guide To Work Permits. Online document available at: http://www.entemp.ie/labour/workpermits/guidelines.htm
  17. Department of Health. (1968). The care of the aged: Report of an inter-departmental committee. Dublin: Stationary Office.Google Scholar
  18. Department of Health (2001). The national health strategy: Quality and fairness-A system for You. ISBN: 0-7557-1158-0. Government of Ireland.Google Scholar
  19. DiCicco-Bloom, B. (2004). The racial and gendered experiences of immigrant nurses from Kerala, India. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 15(1), 26–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dodson, L., & Zincavage, R. (2007). “It’s like a family”: Caring labor, exploitation, and race in nursing homes. Gender & Society, 21(6), 905–928.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Duffy, M. (1987). Methodological triangulation: a vehicle for merging quantitative and qualitative research methods. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 19(3), 130–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dyer, S., McDowell, L., & Batnitzky, A. (2008). Emotional labour/body work: the caring labours of migrants in the UK’s National Health Service. Geoforum, 39(6), 2030–2038.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Garavan, R., McGee, H., & Winder, R. (2001). Health and social services for older people. National Council on Ageing and Older People.Google Scholar
  24. Gonzalez-Perez, M., McDonough, T., & Dundon, T. (2005). Labour relations practices and migrant workers in Ireland. Central for Structural Innovation & Structural Change Working Paper No. 22.Google Scholar
  25. Hagey, R., Choudhry, U., Guruge, S., Turrittin, J., Collins, E., & Lee, R. (2001). Immigrant nurses’ experience of racism. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 33(4), 389–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Health Service Executive (2008). National intercultural health strategy 2007–2012. Health Service Executive 2008. Available at http://epubs.rcsi.ie/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1001&context=ephmrep. Accessed July 2009.
  27. Humphries, N., Brugha, R., & McGee, H. (2008). Overseas nurse recruitment: Ireland as an illustration of the dynamic nature of nurse migration. Health Policy, 87(2), 264–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Jick, T. D. (1979). Mixing qualitative and quantitative methods: triangulation in action. Administrative Science Quarterly, 24, 602–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Johnstone, M., & Kanitsaki, O. (2008). Engaging patients as safety partners: some considerations for ensuring a culturally and linguistically appropriate approach. Health Policy, 90(1), 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Keung Wong, D. F., Li, C. Y., & Song, H. X. (2007). Rural migrant workers in urban china: living a marginalised life. International Journal of Social Welfare, 16(1), 32–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Khadria, B. (2007). International nurse recruitment in India. Health Research and Educational Trust, 42(3p2), 1429–1436.Google Scholar
  32. Kingma, M. (2007). Nurses on the move: a global overview. Health Research and Educational Trust, 42(3p2), 1281–1298.Google Scholar
  33. Kyraiakides, C., & Virdee, S. (2003). Migrant labour, racism and the British National Health Service. Ethnicity & Health, 8(4), 283–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Larsen, J. A. (2007). Embodiment of discrimination and overseas nurses’ career progression. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 16(12), 2187–2195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Leas Cross Review (2006). Leas cross review. Health Service Executive. Available at http://www.hse.ie/eng/Publications/services/Older/Leas_Cross_Report_.pdf. Accessed July 2009.
  36. Lorenzo, F. M. E., Galvez-Tan, J., Icamina, K., & Javier, L. (2007). Nurse migration from a source country perspective: Philippine country case study. Health Research and Educational Trust, 42(3p2), 1406–1418.Google Scholar
  37. Loveband, A. (2004). Positioning the product: Indonesian migrant women workers in Taiwan. Journal of Contemporary Asia, 34(3), 336–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. McGregor, J. (2007). Joining the BBC (British Bottom Cleaners): Zimbabwean migrants and the UK care industry. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 33, 801–824.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mercer. (2002). Study to examine the future of long-term care in ireland. Dublin: The Stationary Office.Google Scholar
  40. Minichiello, V., Browne, J., & Kendig, H. (2000). Perceptions and consequences of ageism: views of older people. Ageing and Society, 20(3), 253–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Moran-Ellis, J., Alexander, V. D., Cronin, A., Dickinson, M., Fielding, J., Sleney, J., et al. (2006). Triangulation and integration: processes, claims and implications. Qualitative Research, 6(45).Google Scholar
  42. MRCI (2004). The experience of twenty migrant women employed in the private home in Ireland. Published by the Migrant Rights Centre Ireland December 2004.Google Scholar
  43. MRCI (2008). Exploitation in Ireland’s restaurant industry. Migrant Rights Centre Ireland’s Restaurant Workers Action Group. Published by the Migrant Rights Centre Ireland December 2008Google Scholar
  44. Murphy, K., O’Shea, E., Cooney, A., Shiel, A., & Hodgins, M. (2006). Improving quality of life of older people in long-stay care settings in Ireland. Dublin: National Council on Ageing and Older People.Google Scholar
  45. NCCRI/IHSMI (2002). Cultural diversity in the Irish health care sector: Towards the development of policy and practice guidelines for organisations in the health sector.Google Scholar
  46. NESC (2005). NESC strategy 2006: People, productivity and purpose. National Economic and Social Development Office, Report No. 114.Google Scholar
  47. NESC (2006). Managing migration in Ireland: A social and economic analysis. A report by the International Organisation for Migration for the National Economic and Social Council of Ireland. Report no. 116.Google Scholar
  48. NESF (2005). Care for Older People. National Economic and Social Development Office, Report 32.Google Scholar
  49. O’Connell, P. J., & McGinnity, F. (2008). Immigrants at work: Ethnicity and nationality in the Irish Labour market. Published jointly by the Equality Authority and Economic and Social Research Institute. ISBN: 0 7070 0270 2.Google Scholar
  50. O’Doherty, C. (2006). Social care and social capital. In T. O’Connor, & M. Murphy (Eds.), Social care in Ireland (pp. 25–41). CIT.Google Scholar
  51. O’Shea, E. (2003). Review of the nursing home subvention scheme. Dublin: Department of Health and Children.Google Scholar
  52. O’Shea, E. (2007). Towards a strategy for older people in Ireland. Irish Medical Journal, 100, 8.Google Scholar
  53. OECD. (2007). ‘Ageing and the Public Service in Ireland’ in Ageing and the Public Service: Human Resource Challenges. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  54. Omeri, A., & Atkins, K. (2002). Lived experiences of immigrant nurses in New South Wales, Australia: searching for meaning. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 39(5), 495–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Orsetta, C., & Sébastien, J. (2006). Immigrants integration in OECD countries: Does labour market policy matter? Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, December 2006.Google Scholar
  56. Peck, J. A. (1989). Reconceptualizing the local labour market: space, segmentation and the state. Progress in Human Geography, 13, 42–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Phillipson, C. (2007). Migration and health care for older people: Developing a global perspective (Commentary). In K. W. Schaie, & P. Uhlenberg (Eds.), Social structures: Demographic changes and the well-being of older persons. Springer.Google Scholar
  58. Piper, N. (2004). Gender and migration policies in Southeast and East Asia: legal protection and sociocultural empowerment of unskilled migrant women. Journal of Tropical Geography, 25(2), 216–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Pittman, P., Aiken, L. H., & Buchan, J. (2007). International migration of nurses: introduction. Health Research and Educational Trust, 42(3p2), 1275–1280.Google Scholar
  60. Price, D. (2006). The poverty of older people in the UK. Journal of Social Work Practice, 20(3), 251–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Royal College of Surgeons (2008). Retaining migrant nurses in Ireland. Nurse Migration Project Policy Brief 2: 2008. Available at http://epubs.rcsi.ie/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1001&context=ephmrep. Accessed July 2009.
  62. Ruhs, M. (2005). Managing the Immigration and Employment of non-EU Nationals in Ireland. “Blue Paper” (Policy Paper) published jointly by the Policy Institute, Trinity College Dublin and the Centre on Migration, Policy and Society.Google Scholar
  63. Ruhs, M., & Anderson, B. (2006). Semi-compliance in the migrant labour market (working paper no. 30). Centre on Migration, Policy and Society. Oxford: University of Oxford.Google Scholar
  64. Sale, J. E. M., Lohfeld, L. H., & Brazil, K. (2002). Revisiting the quantitative-qualitative debate: implications for mixed-methods research. Quality and Quantity, 36(1), 43–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Shih, F. (1998). Triangulation in nursing research: issues of conceptual clarity and purpose. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 28(3), 631–641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Simonazzi, A. (2009). Care regimes and national employment models. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 33(2), 211–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Smith, P., & Mackintosh, M. (2007). Profession, market and class: nurse migration and the remaking of division and disadvantage. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 16(12), 2213–2220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Stiell, B., & England, K. (1999). Jamaican domestics, Filipina housekeepers and English nannies: Representations of Toronto’s foreign doemstic workers. In: Momsen, J. (Ed.), Gender, Migration and Domestic Service. Routledge: London and New York.Google Scholar
  69. The Commission of Investigation (2009). The Leas Cross Commission: Final Report June 2009. Department of Health and Children. Available at http://www.dohc.ie/publications/leas_cross_commission.html. Accessed July 2009.
  70. Timonen, V., & Doyle, M. (2008). From the workhouse to the home; evolution of domiciliary care policies in Ireland. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 28(3/4).Google Scholar
  71. Tuohy, D. (2002). Student nurse-older person communication. Nurse Education Today, 23, 19–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Walsh, K., & O’Shea, E. (2008). Voluntary care for older people: policy and practice concerns. Administration, 55(4).Google Scholar
  73. Walsh, K., & O’Shea, E. (2009). The role of migrant care workers in ageing societies: context and experiences in Ireland. National Report. Available at http://www.icsg.ie/Library/documents/ICSG%20MCW%20Report.pdf.
  74. Walsh, K., & Waldmann, T. (2008). The influence of nursing home residency on the capacities of low-dependency older adults. Ageing & Mental Health, 12(5).Google Scholar
  75. Williams, J., Hughes, G., & Blackwell, S. (2005). Attitudes towards funding of long-term care of the elderly. Books and Monographs published by the ESRI No. 185, Dublin: The Economic and Social Research Institute, 2005.Google Scholar
  76. Winkelmann, L., & Winkelmann, R. (2002). Immigrants in the New Zealand Labour Market: A Cohort Analysis using 1981, 1986 and 1996 Census Data. International Library of Critical Writings in Economics, 2002.Google Scholar
  77. Working Party on Services for the Elderly. (1988). The years ahead: A policy for the elderly. Dublin: Stationary Office.Google Scholar
  78. Xu, Y. (2006). Differences in healthcare systems between east and west: implications for Asian nurses. Home Health Care Management & Practice, 18(4), 338–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Xu, Y. (2007a). International migration of nurses and human development. Home Health Care Management & Practice, 20(1), 87–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Xu, Y. (2007b). Strangers in strange lands: a metasynthesis of lived experiences of immigrant Asian nurses working in western countries. Advances in Nursing Sciences, 30(3), 246–265.Google Scholar
  81. Xu, Y. (2008). Communicative competence of international nurses and patient safety and quality of care. Home Health Care Management & Practice, 20(5), 430–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Xu, Y., & Kwak, C. (2005). Changing faces: internationally educated nurses in U.S. workforce in long-term care settings. Home Health Care Management & Practice, 17(5), 421–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Irish Centre for Social GerontologyNational University of Ireland GalwayGalwayIreland

Personalised recommendations