Advertisement

Journal of Population Ageing

, Volume 2, Issue 3–4, pp 161–181 | Cite as

Later-Life Migrations in Canada in 2001: A Multilevel Approach

  • Karen M. King
  • K. Bruce Newbold
Article

Abstract

Canada is an aging society; with over 13% of the population 65 and over in 2008 and with this population growing at a rate more than double the overall population. Moreover, the aging of the Canada population varies geographically across the nation. Using data drawn from the 2001 Census of Canada Master files (20% sample), the objectives of this analysis are twofold. First, the analysis examines the internal migration behavior of the older population, distinguishing between the native-born and foreign-born. Second, the analysis examines how residential attributes at the census subdivision (CSD) and census metropolitan levels influence the migration decision. This analysis examines the later-life migrations of Canada’s older population at the census subdivision level in 2001.

Keywords

Elderly Later-life Internal migration Multilevel model Canada Census 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This paper was completed while the first author was a Social and Economic Dimensions of an Aging Population (SEDAP) postdoctoral fellow at McMaster University. She gratefully acknowledges the funding support of this program and Human Resources and Social Development Canada (HRSDC) for this research. The authors would like to acknowledge assistance from Dr. Ruben Mercado with multilevel modeling in MLwiN.

References

  1. Bergob, M. J. (1992). Where have all the old folks gone? Interprovincial migration of the elderly in Canada: 1981–1986. Canadian Studies in Population, 19(1), 17–25.Google Scholar
  2. Bergob, M. J. (1995). Destination preferences and motives of senior and non-senior inter-provincial migration in Canada. Canadian Studies in Population, 22(1), 31–47.Google Scholar
  3. Brown, L. A., & Moore, E. G. (1970). The intra-urban process: a perspective. Geografiska Annaler Series B Human Geography., 52(1), 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Browne, W. J., Rasbash, J., Ng, E. S. W. (2005). MCMC estimation in MLwiN Version 2.0. University of Bristol. http://www.cmm.bristol.ac.uk/MLwiN/download/MCMC%20est_2005.pdf. Accessed 4 March 2008.
  5. Burr, J. A., & Mutchler, J. E. (2007). Residential independence among older persons: community and individual factors. Population Research Policy Review, 26, 85–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Carriere, Y., & Pelletier, L. (1995). Factors underlying the institutionalization of elderly persons in Canada. Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 50(3), S164–S172.Google Scholar
  7. Casado-Díaz, M. A., Kaiser, C., & Warnes, A. M. (2004). Northern European retired residents in nine Southern European areas: characteristics, motivations and adjustment. Ageing & Society, 24, 353–381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Che-Alford, J., & Stevenson, K. (1998). Older Canadians on the move. Canadian Social Trends, pp 15–18, Spring.Google Scholar
  9. Cheung, H. Y., & Liaw, K. L. (1987). Metropolitan out-migration of elderly females in Canada: characterization and explanation. Environment and Planning A, 19(12), 1659–1671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Clark, D. E., & Hunter, W. J. (1992). The impact of economic opportunity, amenities and fiscal factors on age-specific migration rates. Journal of Regional Science, 32(3), 349–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Clark, W. A. V., & Onaka, J. L. (1983). Life cycle and housing adjustment as explanations of residential mobility. Urban Studies, 20, 47–57.Google Scholar
  12. Coates, K. S., Healy, R., & Morrison, W. R. (2002). Tracking the snowbirds: seasonal migration from Canada to the U.S.A. and Mexico. American Review of Canadian Studies, 32(3), 433–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Conway, K. S., & Houtenville, A. J. (2001). Elderly migration and state fiscal policy: evidence from the 1990 census migration flows. National Tax Journal, LIV, 1, 103–123.Google Scholar
  14. Day, F. A., & Barlett, J. M. (2000). Economic impact of retirement migration on the Texas Hill Country. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 19(1), 78–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Duncombe, W., Robbins, M., & Wolf, D. A. (2003). Place characteristics and residential location choice among the retirement-age population. Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 58B(4), S244–S252.Google Scholar
  16. Erickson, M., Krout, J., Ewen, H., & Robison, J. (2006). Should I stay or should I go? Moving plans of older adults. Journal of Housing for the Elderly, 20(3), 5–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ermisch, J. F., & Jenkins, S. P. (1999). Retirement and housing adjustment in later life: evidence from the British household panel survey. Labour Economics, 6, 311–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Everitt, J., & Gfellner, B. (1996). Elderly mobility in a rural area: the example of Southwest Manitoba. The Canadian Geographer/Le Géographe Canadien, 40(4), 338–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fokkema, T., & Gierveld, J. N. (1996). Big cities, big problems: reason for the elderly to move? Urban Studies, 33(2), 353–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Frey, W. H., Lee, K. L., & Lin, G. (2000). State magnets for different elderly migrant types in the United States. International Journal of Population Geography, 6, 21–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Friedrich, K., & Warnes, A. M. (2000). Understanding contrasts in later life migration patterns. Erdunde, 54, 108–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gale, L. R., & Heath, W. C. (2000). Elderly internal migration in the United States revisited. Public Finance Review, 28(2), 153–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Golant, S. M., & LaGreca, A. J. (1994). Housing quality of U.S. Elderly households: does aging in place matter? The Gerontologist, 34(6), 803–814.Google Scholar
  24. Hanlon, N., & Halseth, G. (2005). The greying of resource communities in Northern British Columbia: implications for health care delivery in already under-serviced communities. The Canadian Geographer/Le Géographe Canadien, 49(1), 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hazelrigg, L. E., & Hardy, M. A. (1995). Older adult migration to the Sunbelt: Assessing income and related characteristics of recent migrants. Research on Aging, 17(2), 209–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hill, K. & Billari, F. C. (2006). Migration to urban and rural destinations in post-Soviet Estonia: a multilevel event-history analysis. Environment and Planning A, 38, 749–764.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hooimeijer, P., Dieleman, F., & Kuijpers-Linde. (1993). Is elderly migration absent in the Netherlands? Espace, Population, Societies, 3, 465–476.Google Scholar
  28. Joseph, A. E., & Cloutier, D. S. (1991). Elderly migration and its implications for service provision in rural communities: an Ontario perspective. Journal of Rural Studies, 7(4), 433–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kallan, J. E. (1993). A multilevel analysis of elderly migration. Social Science Quarterly, 74(2), 403–416.Google Scholar
  30. Kim, J., & Lauderdale, D. S. (2002). The role of community context in immigrant elderly living arrangements: Korean American elderly. Research on Aging, 24(6), 630–653.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. King, R., Warnes, A. M., & Williams, A. M. (1998). International retirement migration in Europe. International Journal of Population Geography, 4, 91–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kupiszewski, M., Schuler, M., Reichle, M., Durham, H., & Rees, Ph. (2000). Internal migration and regional population dynamics in Europe: Switzerland case study. Working Paper, School of Geography, University of Leeds. http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/5026/1/00-2.pdf (Last Accessed 15 April 2009).
  33. Kupiszewski, M., Illeris, S., Durham, H. & Rees, Ph. (2001a). Internal migration and regional population dynamics in Europe: Denmark case study. Working Paper, School of Geography, University of Leeds. http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/5018/1/01-2.pdf (Last Accessed 15 April 2009).
  34. Kupiszewski, M., Borgegard, L., Fransson, U., Hakansson, J., Durham, H. & Rees, Ph. (2001b). Internal migration and regional population dynamics in Europe: Sweden Case Study. Working Paper, School of Geography, University of Leeds. http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/5019/1/01-1.pdf (Last Accessed 15 April 2009).
  35. Ledent, J., & Liaw, K. L. (1989). Provincial out-migration patterns of Canadian elderly: characterization and explanation. Environment and Planning A, 21(8), 1093–1111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lee, E. S. (1966). A theory of migration. Demography, 3(1), 47–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Li, F., Fisher, K. J., Brownson, R. C., & Bosworth, M. (2005). Multilevel modeling of built environment characteristics related to neighbourhood walking activity in older adults. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 59, 558–564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Liaw, K. L., & Kanaroglou, P. (1986). Metropolitan elderly out-migration in Canada, 1971–1976: characterization and explanation. Research on Aging, 8(2), 201–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Liaw, K. L., & Qi, M. (2004). Lifetime interprovincial migration in Canada: looking beyond short-run fluctuations. The Canadian Geographer/Le Géographe Canadien, 48(2), 168–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lin, J. (2005). The housing transition of seniors. Canadian Social Trends, 79, 22–28. Statistics Canada. http://www.statcan.ca/english/freepub/11-008-XIE/2005003/articles/8969.pdf. Accessed 4 April 2008.Google Scholar
  41. Litwak, E., & Longino, C. F., Jr. (1987). Migration patterns among the elderly: A developmental perspective. The Gerontologist, 27(3), 266–272.Google Scholar
  42. Longino, C. F., Jr. (1985). Returning from the sunbelt. A., Mond (Ed.), Returning from the Sunbelt: Myths and realities of migratory patterns among the elderly (pp. 7–12). Columbia University, New York: Brookdale Institute on Aging and Human Development.Google Scholar
  43. Longino, C. F., Jr., Marshall, V. W., Mullins, L. C., & Tucker, R. D. (1991). On the nesting of snowbirds: a question about seasonal and permanent migrants. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 10(2), 157–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ma, A., & Chow, N. W. S. (2006). Determinants of elderly residentail mobility in Southern China: exploration and implications. Ageing International, 31(1), 59–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. McHugh, K. E., & Mings, R. C. (1994). Seasonal migration and health care. Journal of Aging and Health, 6(1), 111–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Mahmood, A., Yamamoto, T., Lee, M., & Steggell, C. (2008). Perceptions and use of gerotechnology: implications for aging in place. Journal of Housing for the Elderly, 22(1/2), 104–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Marr, W., & Millerd, F. (2004). Migration of elderly households in Canada, 1991–1996: determinants and differences. Population, Space and Place, 10, 435–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Meyer, J. W., & Speare, A., Jr. (1985). Distinctively elderly mobility: types and determinants. Economic Geography, 61, 79–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Michelson, W., Belgue, D., & Stewart, J. (1973). Intentions and expectations in differential residential selection. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 35(2), 189–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Moore, E. G., & Pacey, M. A. (2003). Geographical dimensions of aging in Canada 1991–2001, Research paper No. 97, Social and Economic Dimensions of an Aging Population (SEDAP), McMaster University. http://socserv2.socsci.mcmaster.ca/~sedap/p/sedap97.pdf. Accessed 10 April 2008.
  51. Moore, E. G., Rosenberg, M. W., & McGuiness, D. (1997). Growing old in Canada: Demographic and geographic perspectives. Toronto: ITP Nelson.Google Scholar
  52. Moore, E. G., McGuinness, D., Pacey, M. A. & Rosenberg, M. W. (2000). Geographical dimensions of aging: the Canadian experience 1991–1996, Research paper No. 23 Social and Economic Dimensions of an Aging Population (SEDAP), McMaster University. http://socserv2.socsci.mcmaster.ca/~sedap/p/sedap23.pdf. Accessed 4 March 2008.
  53. Newbold, K. B. (1996). Determinants of elderly interstate migration in the United States, 1985–1990. Research on Aging, 18(4), 451–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Newbold, K. B. (2007). Return and onwards migration among older Canadians: findings from the 2001 census, Research Paper No. 171, Social and Economic Dimensions of an Aging Population (SEDAP), McMaster University. http://socserv2.socsci.mcmaster.ca/~sedap/p/sedap171.pdf. Accessed 8 March 2008.
  55. Northcott, H. C. (1988). Changing residence: The geographic mobility of elderly Canadians. Toronto: Butterworths.Google Scholar
  56. Oswald, F., Wahl, W., Schilling, O., Nygren, C., Fange, A., Sixsmith, A., et al. (2007). Relationships between Housing and Aging in Very Old Age. The Gerontologist, 47(1), 96–107.Google Scholar
  57. Patel, K. V., Eschback, K., Rudkin, L. L., Peek, M. K., & Markides, K. S. (2003). Neighborhood context and self-rated health in older Mexican Americans. Annals of Epidemiology, 13, 620–628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Raymer, J., Abel, G., & Smith, P. W. F. (2007). Combining census and rgistreation data to estimate detailed elderly migration flows in England and Wales. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society A, 170(4), 891–908.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Rogers, A., & Raymer, J. (1999). The regional demographics of the elderly foreign-born and native-born populations in the United States since 1950. Research on Aging, 21(1), 3–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Rossi, P. H. (1955). Why families move: A study in the social psychology of urban residential mobility. Glencoe: Free.Google Scholar
  61. Saito, T. L., Lee, H., & Kai, I. (2007). Health and motivation of elderly relocating to a suburban area in Japan. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 45, 217–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Schellenberg, G. (2004). Immigrants in Canada’s census metropolitan areas, Statistics Canada Business and Labour Market Analysis Division. Ottawa: Catalogue No. 89-613-MIE, No. 003. http://www.statcan.ca/english/research/89-613-MIE/2004003/89-613-MIE2004003.pdf. Accessed 2 April 2008.
  63. Serow, W. J., Friedrich, K., & Haas, W. H. (1996). Residential relocation and regional redistribution of the elderly in the USA and Germany. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, 11, 293–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Smith, S. K., & House, M. (2006). Snowbirds, sunbirds, and stayers: seasonal migration of elderly adults in Florida. Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 61(5), S232–S239.Google Scholar
  65. Speare, A., Jr., & Meyer, J. (1988). Types of elderly residential mobility and their determinants. Journal of Gerontology, 43, S74–81.Google Scholar
  66. Speare, A. J. R., Avery, R., & Lawton, L. (1991). Disability, residential mobility, and changes in living arrangements. Journal of Gerontology, 46(3), S133–S142.Google Scholar
  67. Statistics Canada. (2008a). Report on the demographic situation in Canada: 2005 and 2006 edition. Ottawa: Statistics Canada. http://www.statcan.ca/english/freepub/91-209-XIE/91-209-XIE2004000.pdf. Accessed 5 June 2008.Google Scholar
  68. Statistics Canada. (2008b). 2006 census dictionary. Ottawa: Statistics Canada. http://www12.statcan.ca/english/census06/reference/dictionary/index.cfm. Accessed 2 April 2009.Google Scholar
  69. Tolnay, S. E., & Crowder, K. D. (1999). Regional origin and family stability in northern cities: the role of context. American Sociological Review, 64(1), 97–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Walters, W. H. (1994). Climate and U.S. elderly migration rates. Papers in Regional Science, 73, 309–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Walters, W. H. (2002a). Later-life migration in the United States: a review of recent research. Journal of Planning Literature, 17(1), 37–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Walters, W. H. (2002b). Place characteristics and later-life migration. Research on Aging, 24(2), 243–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Warnes, A. M., & Williams, A. (2006). Older migrants in Europe: a new focus for migration studies. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 32(8), 1257–1281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Wight, R. G., Cummings, J. R., Miller-Martinez, D., Karlamangla, A. S., Seeman, T. E. & Aneshensel, C. S. (2008). A multilevel analysis of urban neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and health in late life. Social Science & Medicine, 66(4), 862–872.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Winchester Brown, J., Liang, J., Krause, N., Akiyama, J., Sugisawa, J., & Fukaya, T. (2002). Transitions in living arrangements among elders in Japan: does health make a difference? Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 57B(4), S209–S220l.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Martin Prosperity Institute, Joseph L. Rotman School of ManagementUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  2. 2.School of Geography and Earth SciencesMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada

Personalised recommendations