Mapping Potential Wilderness in China with Location-based Services Data
- 88 Downloads
Wilderness mapping can provide valuable information for natural resource management. In this article, a novel, straightforward approach has been developed to identify wilderness areas in China using emerging new data. Tencent LBS (location based service) data that reflect human activities are used as a basis for mapping wilderness characteristics for the whole of China while admitting non-human-activity zones as “observed” wilderness, rather than “estimated/inferred” wilderness using spatial factors based on conventional wilderness mapping approaches using GIS. The mapping results using new data are compared and integrated with the results from the MCE approach. The wilderness map, delineating the range of wilderness across the whole of China, could be used in landscape planning to protect the remaining natural resources and evaluate existing spatial ecological protection schemes. With increasingly available new data, the proposed approach can be applied for mapping wilderness at other spatial scales and in other geographical areas.
KeywordsWilderness mapping Non-people zone Location based service (LBS) National level Nature protection Nature reserves
We are grateful for the financial support of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51778319), the National Water Pollution Control and Treatment Science and Technology Major Project (No. 2017ZX07103-002) and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (NO. 2018M631476).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Aplet, G., Thomson, J. and Wilbert, M. (2000). Indicators of wildness: Using attributes of the land to assess the context of wilderness. Vol. RMRS-P-15, 89–98.Google Scholar
- Cao, Y, Yang, R, Long, Y., Carver, S (2018) A preliminary study on mapping wilderness in mainland China. International Journal of Wilderness, 24(2). ISSN 1086-5519.Google Scholar
- Carver, S. (1996). Mapping the wilderness continuum using raster GIS. Raster imagery in geographic information systems. OnWord press, New Mexico, 4, 283–288.Google Scholar
- Carver, S. and Wrightham, M. (2003). Assessment of historic trends in the extent of wild land in Scotland: A pilot study: Scottish Natural Heritage.Google Scholar
- Casson, S. A., Martin, V. G., Watson, A., Stringer, A., & Kormos, C. F. (2016). Wilderness protected areas: Management guidelines for IUCN category 1b protected areas. Gland: IUCN.Google Scholar
- Cronon, W. (1998). The trouble with wilderness; or, getting back to the wrong nature. Uncommon ground: Rethinking the human place in nature (pp. 69–90). New York: Norton.Google Scholar
- Dawson, C. P. and Hendee, J. C. (2002). Wilderness management: Stewardship and protection of resources and values: Fulcrum Pub, 2002(4), 469–470.Google Scholar
- Fritz, S., Carver, S., See, L., Mccool, S. F., Cole, D. N., and Borrie, W. T., et al. (2000). New gis approaches to wild land mapping in europe. Proceedings - Rocky Mountain Research Station, USDA Forest Service, 120–127.Google Scholar
- Hennig, B. D. (2016). Visualising Space of Global Inaccessibility, Mapping Wilderness. Concepts, Techniques and Applications (pp. 102–116). Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
- Kuiters A.T., Kun Z., McIntosh N., Poirters C., van Apeldoorn R.C. and Vancura V. (2013). Guidelines for the management of wilderness and wild areas in Natura 2000, European Commission, available at http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/natura2000/wilderness/. Accessed 15 Dec 2016.
- Lesslie, R. G. (1998). Global wilderness. Cambridge: UNEP-WCMC. Dataset derived using the Digital Chart of the World 1993 version and methods based on the Australian National Wilderness Inventory. http://www.unep-wcmc.org/resources-and-data/global-wilderness. Accessed 30 Dec 2015.
- Lesslie, R. G. (2016). The Wilderness Continuum Concept and Its Application in Australia: Lessons for Modern Conservation. Mapping Wilderness: Concepts, Techniques and Application. Dordrecht: Springer, 177–189.Google Scholar
- Măntoiu, D. Ş., Nistorescu, M. C., Şandric, I. C., Mirea, I. C., Hăgătiş, A., & Stanciu, E. (2016). Wilderness Areas in Romania: A Case Study on the South Western Carpathians, Mapping Wilderness. Concepts, Techniques and Applications (pp. 145–156). Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
- McCloskey, J. M., & Spalding, H. (1989). A reconnaissance-level inventory of the amount of wilderness remaining in the world. Ambio, 221–227.Google Scholar
- Molloy, L. (1983). Wilderness recreation in New Zealand. Paper presented at the proceedings of the FMC 50th jubilee conference on wilderness. Federated Mountain clubs of NZ (Inc).Google Scholar
- Nash, R. (1967). Wilderness and the American mind. CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
- ÓlafsdÓttir, R., Sæþórsdóttirand, A. D., & Runnström, M. (2016). Purism Scale Approach for Wilderness Mapping in Iceland. Mapping Wilderness. Concepts, Techniques and Applications (pp. 157–176). Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
- Sanderson, E. W., Jaiteh, M., Levy, M. A., Redford, K. H., Wannebo, A. V., & Woolmer, G. (2002). The human footprint and the last of the wild: The human footprint is a global map of human influence on the land surface, which suggests that human beings are stewards of nature, whether we like it or not. BioScience, 52(10), 891–904.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sang, N. (2016). Wild vistas: Progress in computational approaches to “viewshed” analysis. Mapping wilderness. Concepts, techniques and applications (pp. 69–87). Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
- See, L., Fritz, S., Perger, C., Schill, C., Albrecht, F., McCallum, I., Schepaschenko, D., Van der Velde, M., Kraxner, F., Baruah, U. D., Saikia, A., Singh, K., de Miguel, S., Hazarika, R., Sarkar, A., Marcarini, A. A., Baruah, M., Sahariah, D., Changkakati, T., & Obersteiner, M. (2014). Mapping human impact using crowdsourcing. Mapping wilderness. Concepts, techniques and applications (pp. 89–102). Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
- Stankey, G.H., and Schreyer, R. (1987). Attitudes toward wilderness and factors affecting visitor behaviour: A state-of-knowledge review. General Technical Report, Intermountain Research Station, USDA Forest Service, No. INT-220, 246–293.Google Scholar
- Tricker, J. & Landres, P. (2012). Mapping wilderness character in Death Valley National Park. National Resource Stewardship and Science, 82.Google Scholar
- Tuan, Y. F. (1990). Topophilia: A study of environmental perception, attitudes, and values. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
- Walden-Schreiner, C., Rossi, S. D., Barros, A., Pickering, C., and Leung, Y. F. (2018). Using crowd-sourced photos to assess seasonal patterns of visitor use in mountain-protected areas. Ambio, 1–13.Google Scholar
- Wild Europe (2013) A working definition of European wilderness and wild areas. http://www.wildeurope.org/images/pdf/a-working-definition-of-european-wilderness-and-wild-areas.pdf. Accessed 30 May 2014.
- Wilderness Act of 1964, Pub.L. No. 88–577, 78 Stat. 890 (1964).Google Scholar
- Worboys, G., Francis, W. L., & Lockwood, M. (Eds.). (2010). Connectivity conservation management: A global guide (with particular reference to mountain connectivity conservation). London: Earthscan.Google Scholar