Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy

, Volume 12, Issue 4, pp 831–845 | Cite as

An Analysis of Modes of Commuting in Urban and Rural Areas

  • Xiangwu TaoEmail author
  • Zongtang Fu
  • Alexis J. Comber


This study compares global and local analyses of non-car commuting modes and the probability of increasing modes use in different urban and rural areas for a case study in Yorkshire, UK, with commuter residence areas used as the response variable. The analyses compared Generalized Linear Models of commuting by bus, cycling and walking to estimate the probability of increasing sustainable modes use in commuters in urban areas, relative to rural areas. The three variables were found to be significant predictors for the models and indicate differential odds of commuting from urban areas relative to rural ones. An analysis of the non-stationarity of was undertaken using a Geographically Weighted Regression analysis, which showed how the probability of residing in a particular type of urban and rural area, as described by commuting patterns, varied spatially within the study region. The local analyses provide a critical information able to support and guide local policy in its ambition to increase sustainable transport modes and to reduce car dependence in both rural and urban areas.


Commuting mode Generalized linear model Spatial variation Geographically weighted regression 



This study was funded by the China Scholarship Council (grant number 201606405025).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Land Science and TechnologyChina University of GeosciencesBeijingChina
  2. 2.School of GeographyUniversity of LeedsLeedsUK

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