Energy Efficiency

, Volume 12, Issue 7, pp 1771–1793 | Cite as

Energy saving measures from their cradle to full adoption with verified, monitored, and targeted performance: a look back at energy audit at Catalytic Naphtha Reforming Unit (CCR)

  • Miroslav VarinyEmail author
  • Marek Blahušiak
  • Otto Mierka
  • Štefan Godó
  • Tibor Margetíny
Original Article


Intending to contribute to the discourse about industrial energy efficiency and barriers to its improvement, deep insight into the scope and methodology and achievements of an energy audit on a Catalytic Naphtha Reforming Unit are provided. The audit of this particular unit was a part of the audit of the whole SLOVNAFT refinery in 2010–2012. The audit itself is the preparation of saving proposals’ implementation and post-implementation monitoring and targeting that lasted until spring 2016 covered in retrospective as the auditors were involved in all post-auditing phases as well. Several saving ideas emerging from the performed audit were rejected or have still not been implemented due to either technical issues or non-technical factors. Implemented proposals included improvement in the condensates’ management system, boiler feedwater preparation, and increased exploitation of the cogeneration potential. A cumulative 3-year benefit of over 600 k€ is reported which is close to the targeted value. The post-audit cooperation of auditors with the refinery’s staff enabled to define the non-technical barriers to saving proposals’ adoption that are of general nature. These included (1) short payback period requirement, (2) possibility of implementation of changes during the turnaround/general revisions, (3) conflicting relationships between local micro-economies of production units and the net-economy of the whole refinery, (4) internal processes and communication, and (5) personnel policy. Long-term cooperation, winning the trust and support of the staff and managers, and regular monitoring and targeting of implemented measures are seen as essential parts of sustainable industrial energy efficiency improvement in any industrial energy auditing.


Industrial energy efficiency Energy audit Cogeneration Implementation procedure Monitoring and targeting 



Air cooler (air condenser)




Catalytic Naphtha Reforming Unit


Central heat and power unit


Conductivity indication and control


Cooling water


Cost, €/kWh, €/GJ


Distributed control system


Electric energy




Frequency converter


Hourly benefit


Heat exchanger


KPI keeping indicator, adopts values 0 or 1




Key performance indicator


Monitoring and targeting


Octane number


Production unit


Process and instrumental design




Rectification column


Saving, €/h


Steam drive


Spill back valve




Variable speed drive


Water cooler


Enthalpic difference, GJ/t


Cogenerated electric energy, kWh/t

Subscripts and superscripts


Electric energy



1 to5

Related to proposal numbers



The authors of this paper would like to kindly acknowledge the support from the SLOVNAFT staff who greatly contributed to the success of both the audit elaboration itself as well as the post-auditing phases.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.GRUCON s.r.o.Bratislava 2Slovak Republic
  2. 2.Department of Chemical and Biochemical EngineeringFCHPT STUBratislava 1Slovak Republic
  3. 3.SLOVNAFT a.s.BratislavaSlovak Republic

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