Viable residential DC microgrids combined with household smart AC and DC loads for underserved communities
- 26 Downloads
The availability of fossil fuels in the future and the environmental effects such as the carbon footprint of the existing methodologies to produce electricity is an increasing area of concern. In rural areas of under-developed parts of the world, the problem is lack of access to electrification. DC microgrids have become a proven solution to electrification in these areas with demonstrated exceptional quality of power, high reliability, efficiency, and simplified integration between renewable energy sources (principally solar PV) and energy storage. In the United States, a different problem occurs that can be addressed with the same DC microgrid approach that is finding success internationally. In disinvested, underserved communities of with high unemployment and low wages, households contribute a significant portion of their income toward the fixed cost of their electrical utility connection, which by law must be supplied to every household. This paper analyzes a residential DC microgrid in an urban, underserved area that enables the sharing of renewable and stored energy resources between dwellings. The goal of the residential DC microgrid is to drive down to fixed costs of utility-provided electricity to all participants, such that the percentage of utility cost to total household income comes can be made comparable to that of more advantaged communities. A group of renovated dwellings constitute the community which the DC microgrid would serve. The distributed installation of solar panels and battery storage among dwelling locations are optimized based upon varying consumption patterns. Also, consumption patterns during different seasons of the year are considered. Electrical distribution architectures within the dwellings are based upon conventional AC. Each dwelling has a DC interface to the residential microgrid and progressive insertion of DC loads, with associated household DC distribution, is considered.
KeywordsDC microgrids DC loads Utility cost Community microgrid Smart AC loads
- DC MG
distributed energy resources
Department of Energy
residential energy consumption survey
aggregated load profile
aggregated solar generation profile
unit size panel
net load profile
National Renewable Energy Laboratories
load data from ALP
solar data from ASGP
Home Energy Management System
Microgrid Energy Management System
demand side management
This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1439700.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest statement
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Ardani, K., O’Shaughnessy, E., Fu, R., McClurg, C., Huneycutt, J., Margolis, R. (2017). Installed cost benchmarks and deployment barriers for residential solar photovoltaics with energy storage: Q1 2016. In National renewable energy laboratory (NREL), Technical Report NREL/TP-7A40-67474 February 2017.Google Scholar
- Boeke, U., Wendt, M. (2015). DC power grids for buildings. In IEEE First International Conference on DC Microgrids, June 7–10 2015.Google Scholar
- Chandler, A. (2016). Where the poor spend more than 10 percent of their income on energy, The Atlantic, June 8, 2016, https://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2016/06/energy-povertylow-income-households/486197/.
- Che, L., Shahidehpour, M., Alabdulwahab, A., Al-Turki, Y. (2015) Hierarchical coordination of a community microgrid with AC and DC microgrids, smart grid, IEEE transactions on, No. 99, 6 March 2015.Google Scholar
- Cui, T., Wang, Y., Nazarian, S., Pedram, M. (2014). An electricity trade model for microgrid communities in smart grid. In Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference (ISGT), 2014 IEEE PES (pp. 1–5), 19–22 Feb. 2014.Google Scholar
- Cuzner, R.M., Palaniappan, K., Shen, Z. J. (2015). System specification for a DC community microgrid and living laboratory embedded in an urban environment. In International conference on renewable energy research and applications (ICRERA), November, 2015.Google Scholar
- Cuzner, R.M., Palaniappan, K., Sedano, W., Hoeft, N., Qi, M. (2017). Fault characterization and protective system design for a residential DC microgrid. In Renewable energy research and applications (ICRERA), 2017 IEEE 6th international conference on (pp. 642–647). IEEE.Google Scholar
- Davies, R., Sumner, M., Christopher, E. (2014). Energy storage control for a small community microgrid. In Power electronics, machines and drives (PEMD 2014), 7th IET International Conference on (pp. 1–6), 8–10 April 2014.Google Scholar
- Dimeas, A., Drenkard, S., Hatzlargyrlou, N., Karnouskos, S., Kok, K., Ringelstein, J., & Weldlich, A. (2014). Smart houses in the smart grid: developing an interactive network electrification magazine. IEEE, 2(1), 81–93.Google Scholar
- Drehobl, A. (2016) Explaining the unique energy burden of low-income households. In American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEE), May 2016, https://aceee.org/blog/2016/05/explaining-unique-energy-burden-low.
- Drehobl, A., Castro-Alvarez, F. (2017). Low-income energy efficiency programs: a baseline assessment of programs serving the 51 largest cities. In American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEE), July 11, 2017, https://aceee.org/white-paper/low-income-ee-baseline.
- Drehobl, A., Ross, L. (2016). Lifting the high energy burden in America’s largest cities: how energy efficiency can improve low-income and underserved communities. American Council for Energy-Efficient Economy.Google Scholar
- Edenhofer et al. (2011). IPCC special report on renewable energy sources and climate change mitigation. In Intergovernmental panel on climate change.Google Scholar
- Emissions Reduction Calculator (n.d.) http://www.cleanerandgreener.org/resources/emissions-reductions-calculator.html (rates are for the average kWh produced in Wisconsin power plants).
- Engelen, K., Shun, E.L., Vermeyen, P., Pardon, I., D'hulst, R., Driesen, J., Belmans, R. (2006). The feasibility of small-scale residential DC distribution systems. In IEEE industrial electronics, IECON 2006-32nd annual conference on (pp. 2618–2623). IEEE.Google Scholar
- European Commission (2010). Directive 2010/31/EU of 19 May 2010 on the energy performance of buildings. http://ec.europa.eu/energy/efficiency/buildings/buildings_en.htm.
- Fu, R., Chung, D., Lowder, T., Feldman, D., Ardani, K., Margolis, R. (2016). U.S. solar photovoltaic system cost benchmark: Q1 2016. In National renewable energy laboratory (NREL), technical report NREL/TP-6A20-66532, Sept. 2016.Google Scholar
- Garbesi, K., Vossos, V., Shen, H. (2011). Catalog of DC appliances and power systems, LBNL-5364E, October 2011.Google Scholar
- Heffner, G., Campbell, N. (2011). Evaluating the co-benefits of low-income energy-efficiency programmes. In Workshop report. Paris: OECD/IEA.Google Scholar
- Huber, M., Sanger, F., Hamacher, T. (2013) Coordinating smart homes in microgrids: a quantification of benefits. In Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe (ISGT EUROPE), 2013 4th IEEE/PES (pp. 1–5), 6–9 Oct. 2013.Google Scholar
- Jeon, J.-Y., Kim, J.-S., Choe, G.-Y., Lee, B.-K., Hur, J., Jin, H.-C. (2011). Design guideline of DC distribution systems for home appliances: issues and solution, In Electric machines & drives conference (IEMDC), 2011 IEEE International, Niagara Falls, ON, 2011 (pp. 657–662).Google Scholar
- Kakigano, H., Miura, Y., Ise, T., Momose, T., Hayakawa, H. (2008). Fundamental characteristics of DC microgrid for residential houses with cogeneration system in each house. In Power and energy society general meeting-conversion and delivery of electrical energy in the 21st century, 2008 IEEE (pp. 1–8). IEEE.Google Scholar
- Kakigano, H., Miura, Y., Ise, T. (2009). Configuration and control of a DC microgrid for residential houses. In Transmission & Distribution Conference & Exposition: Asia and Pacific, 2009 (pp. 1–4). IEEE.Google Scholar
- Kaur, P., Jain, S., Jhunjhunwala, A. (2015). Solar-DC deployment experience in off-grid and near off-grid homes: economics, technology and policy analysis. In IEEE first international conference on DC microgrids, June 7–10 2015.Google Scholar
- Khodaei, A., Shahidehpour, M. (2011). Optimal operation of a community-based microgrid. In Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Asia (ISGT), 2011 IEEE PES (pp. 1–3), 13–16 Nov. 2011.Google Scholar
- Kumar, Y.V.P., Bhimasingu, R. (2014) Optimal sizing of microgrid for an urban community building in south India using HOMER. In Power Electronics, Drives and Energy Systems (PEDES), 2014 IEEE International Conference on, (pp. 1–6), 16–19 Dec. 2014.Google Scholar
- Lin, S.K., Chen, C.R. (2016). Optimal energy consumption scheduling in home energy management system. In 2016 International Conference on Machine Learning and Cybernetics (ICMLC), Jeju (pp. 638–643).Google Scholar
- Makarabbi, G., Gavade, V., Panguloori, R., Mishra, P. (2014). Compatibility and performance study of home appliances in a DC home distribution system In Power Electronics, Drives and Energy Systems (PEDES), 2014 IEEE International Conference on (pp. 1–6), 16–19 Dec. 2014.Google Scholar
- Moutis, P., Skarvelis-Kazakos, S., Brucoli, M., Hung, J., Wu, S.-W. (2014). Planned communities as microgrid applications. In Innovative smart grid technologies conference Europe (ISGT-Europe), 2014 IEEE PES (pp. 1–7), 12–15 Oct. 2014.Google Scholar
- Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (n.d.-a) Building characteristics for residential hourly load data. https://openei.org/doe-opendata/dataset/eadfbd10-67a2-4f64-a394-3176c7b686c1/resource/cd6704ba-3f53-4632-8d08-c9597842fde3/download/buildingcharacteristicsforresidentialhourlyloaddata.pdf.
- Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (n.d.-b) Commercial and residential hourly load profiles for all TMY3 locations in the United States. https://openei.org/datasets/dataset/commercial-and-residential-hourly-load-profiles-for-all-tmy3-locations-in-the-united-states.
- Palaniappan, K., Veerapeneni, S., Cuzner, R., Zhao,Y. (2017a). Assessment of the feasibility of interconnected smart DC homes in a DC microgrid to reduce utility costs of low income households. In 2017 IEEE Second International Conference on DC Microgrids (ICDCM) (pp. 467–473) Nuremburg, 2017.Google Scholar
- Palaniappan, K., Sedano, W., Hoeft, N., Cuzner, R., John Shen, Z. (2017b). Fault discrimination using SiC JFET based self-powered solid state circuit breakers in a residential DC community microgrid. In Energy conversion congress and exposition (ECCE), 2017 IEEE (pp. 3747–3753). IEEE.Google Scholar
- Rodriguez-Diaz, E., Vasquez, J.C., Guerrero, J.M. (2016b) Intelligent DC homes in future sustainable energy systems: when efficiency and intelligence work together. In IEEE consumer electronics magazine, vol. 5, no. 1 (pp. 74–80), Jan. 2016.Google Scholar
- Rodriguez-Otero, M.A., O’Neill-Carrillo, E. (2008). Efficient home appliances for a future DC residence. In Energy 2030 conference, 2008. ENERGY 2008. IEEE (pp. 1–6), 17–18 Nov. 2008.Google Scholar
- Saeedifard, M., Graovac, M., Dias, R.F., Iravani, R. (2010). DC power systems: challenges and opportunities. In Power and energy society general meeting, 2010 IEEE (pp. 1–7), 25–29 July 2010.Google Scholar
- Sharp, F, Symanski, D. Scalable DC micro grids provide cost effective electricity in regions without electric infrastructure. In IEEE Global Humanitarian Technology Conference.Google Scholar
- Unger, K.; Kazerani, M. (2012). Organically grown microgrids: development of a solar neighborhood microgrid concept for off-grid communities. In IECON 2012 - 38th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (pp. 5663–5668), 25–28 Oct. 2012.Google Scholar
- Van Acker, V., Szablya, S.J., Louie, H., McLean Sloughter, J., Pirbhai, A.S. (2014). Survey of energy use and costs in rural Kenya for community microgrid business model development. In Global Humanitarian Technology Conference (GHTC), 2014 IEEE, (pp. 166–173), 10–13 Oct. 2014.Google Scholar
- Vosloo, A.; Raji, K.A. (2015) Intelligent central energy management system for remote community microgrid, In Domestic Use of Energy (DUE), 2015 International Conference on the (pp. 137–140), March 31 2015–April 1 2015.Google Scholar
- Weiss, R., Ott, L., Boecke, U. (2015) Energy efficient low-voltage DC-grids for commercial buildings. In IEEE first international conference on DC microgrids, June 7–10 2015.Google Scholar
- Wilson, E., Engebrect Metzger, C., Horowitz, S., Hendron, R. (2014). 2014 Building America house simulation protocols. In National renewable energy laboratory (NREL), NREL/TP-5500-0988, March 2014.Google Scholar
- Yamini, J., Babu, Y.R. (2016). Design and implementation of smart home energy management system. In 2016 International Conference on Communication and Electronics Systems (ICCES), Coimbatore, 2016 (pp. 1–4).Google Scholar
- Yardley, J. (2015). Pope Francis to explore climates effect on the world’s poor. The New York Times.Google Scholar
- Zhang, W., Lee, F.C., Huang, P.-Y. (2014). Energy management system control and experiment for future home. In Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE), 2014 IEEE (pp. 3317–3324), 14–18 Sept. 2014.Google Scholar
- Zhu, J., Jafari, M., Lu, Y. (2012). Optimal energy management in community micro-grids. In Innovative Smart Grid Technologies - Asia (ISGT Asia), 2012 IEEE (pp. 1–6), 21–24 May 2012.Google Scholar