New standby power targets
- 57 Downloads
Leaving appliances and other devices in “standby power” mode is a significant source of continual electricity consumption in homes and workplaces. Over the years, a combination of policies and technologies has successfully reduced the amount of power used by devices and appliances when in standby power mode, but these energy savings have been offset by an increase in the number of products drawing standby power and new power requirements for maintaining network connections. Current technologies and policies to reduce energy use during standby have limitations and may not be appropriate for emerging trends in devices such as mobile products, networking, and direct DC power. This work proposes a new strategy to measure and further reduce standby energy consumption, the “Standzero” option, which encourages electrical products to be designed to operate for short periods without relying on grid-supplied electricity. Lower energy consumption is achieved through enhanced efficiency and by harvesting ambient energy. A sensitivity analysis indicates that many electrical devices could be designed to operate for at least an hour without relying on grid power and, in some cases, may be able to operate indefinitely at 0 W until activated.
KeywordsStandby power Power management Plug loads Miscellaneous loads Appliances Energy standards MEPS
This work was supported by the California Energy Commission, EPIC Project EPC-15-024.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- De Almeida, Anibal T., Carlos Patrao, Philippe Riviere, David Da Silva, Barbara Schlomann, Michaela Gigli, and Bob Harrison. 2011. Standby and off-mode power demand of new appliances in the market. In 6th International Conference on Energy Efficiency in Domestic Appliances and Lighting (EEDAL’11), Copenhagen, Denmark (2011), 12 p.Google Scholar
- Belkin 2017. Learn about USB-C (USB type-C). September 1, 2017. http://www.belkin.com/us/Resource-Center/USB-C/What-Is-USB-C/.
- Bush, George W. 2007. Presidential Executive Order: further amendment to Executive Order 12866 on Regulatory Planning and Review. The White House: United States Government. www.archives.gov/federal-register/executive-orders/pdf/12866.pdf.
- Cree Inc. 2016. Cree 5-Mm red and amber round LED data sheet - CLD-CT1079.006. www.cree.com/hb.
- Delforge, Pierre, Lisa Schmidt, and Steve Schmidt. 2015. Home idle load: devices wasting huge amounts of electricity when not in active use. NRDC Issue Paper IP:15-03-A. San Francisco: Natural Resources Defense Council.Google Scholar
- Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. 2011. Energy conservation program: energy conservation standards for certain external power supplies - 10 CFR Parts 429 and 430. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-09-19/pdf/2011-23965.pdf.
- EDNA. 2014. Smart lamp testing — initial results. Electronic Devices and Networking Annex - IEA.Google Scholar
- Ellis, Mark, Hans-Paul Siderius, and Kevin Lane. 2015. Closing the gap towards net zero energy appliances. In ECEEE 2015 Summer Study Proceedings. Vol. 1-038–15. Hyères, France: European Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy. http://proceedings.eceee.org/visabstrakt.php?event=5&doc=1-038-15.
- Eto, Joseph H. 2016. CERTS Microgrid Project: status report, presented at the LBNL Reliability Research: Overview and OE/AGRD Projects, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, December 6.Google Scholar
- European Commission. 2008. Implementing Directive 2005/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council with regard to ecodesign requirements for standby and off mode electric power consumption of electrical and electronic household and office equipment. Vol. No 1275/2008. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:32008R1275.
- European Commission. 2009. Ecodesign requirements for no-load condition electric power consumption and average active efficiency of external power supplies. Commission Regulation. Vol. 278/2009. http://data.europa.eu/eli/reg/2009/278/oj.
- Harrington, Lloyd, and Bruce Nordman. 2010. Standby power and low energy networks–issues and directions. Report for Asia Pacific Partnership and the International Energy Agency 4E Standby Annex. Warrgul, Vic. Australia: Energy Efficient Strategies. http://standby.iea-4e.org/files/otherfiles/0000/0023/Network-Standby-2010-09-final. pdf.
- Harrington, Lloyd, Hans-Paul Siderius, and Mark Ellis. 2008. Standby power: building a coherent international policy framework. In ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings.Google Scholar
- IEA. 2001. Things that go bleep in the night: standby power and how to limit it. Paris: International Energy Agency.Google Scholar
- IEA. 2014. More data, less energy. Paris: International Energy Agency.Google Scholar
- International Electrotechnical Commission. 2011. IEC 62301 household electrical appliances measurement of standby power. Edition 2: 94720–136.Google Scholar
- Jollands, N., Waide, P., Ellis, M., Onoda, T., Laustsen, J., Tanaka, K., de T’Serclaes, P., Barnsley, I., Bradley, R., & Meier, A. (2010). The 25 IEA energy efficiency policy recommendations to the G8 Gleneagles Plan of Action. Energy Policy, 38(11), 6409–6418. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2009.11.090.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Korea Energy Management Corporation. 2011. Korea’s energy standards & labeling. Seoul, Korea: Ministry of Knowledge Economy. http://www.kemco.or.kr/nd_file/kemco_eng/KoreaEnergyStandards&Labeling.pdf.
- Lee, J. H., Yoon, C. S., Hwang, J.-Y., Kim, S.-J., Maglia, F., Lamp, P., Myung, S.-T., & Sun, Y.-K. (2016). High-energy-density lithium-ion battery using a carbon-nanotube–Si composite anode and a compositionally graded Li[Ni0.85Co0.05Mn0.10]O2 cathode. Energy Environmental Science, 9(6), 2152–2158. https://doi.org/10.1039/C6EE01134A.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Meier, Alan, and Quentin Alliot. 2016. Permanent electrical loads in new homes. In ACEEE 2016 Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings. Pacific Grove, Calif.: American Council for An Energy Efficient Economy (Washington, D.C.).Google Scholar
- Meier, Alan, and Benoit Lebot. 1999. One watt initiative: a global effort to reduce leaking electricity. In The ECEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency, 1:II.03.1-II.03.7. Mandelieu, France: European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy.Google Scholar
- Rainer, Leo, Alan Meier, and Steve Greenberg. 1996. You won’t find these leaks with a blower door: the latest in ‘leaking electricity’ in homes. In ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings. Asilomar, Calif: American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy.Google Scholar
- Roth, Kurt, Bryan Urban, Victoria Shmakova, and Brian Lim. 2014. Residential consumer electronics energy consumption in 2013. In ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings. Pacific Grove, CA: American Council for An Energy Efficient Economy (Washington, D.C.).Google Scholar
- Sandberg, Eje. 1993. Electronic home equipment - leaking electricity. In ECEEE 1993 Summer Study. European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy.Google Scholar
- SSL Annex. 2016. Stand-by of ‘smart lamps’ can be larger than their energy use for lighting. September 6, 2016. https://ssl.iea-4e.org/news/stand-by-of-smart-lamps.
- Taranovich, Steve. 2017. Increasing efficiency of offline flyback power conversion. EDN. September 17, 2017. https://www.edn.com/electronics-products/electronic-product-reviews/other/4458846/Increasing-efficiency-of-offline-flyback-power-conversion.
- Tsunoda, Y., Tsuchiya, C., Segawa, Y., Sawaya, H., Hasegawa, M., Ishigaki, S., & Ishibashi, K. (2016). A small-size energy-harvesting electric power sensor for implementing existing electrical appliances into HEMS. IEEE Sensors Journal, 16(2), 457–463. https://doi.org/10.1109/JSEN.2015.2472475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Yamawaki, Akira, and Seiichi Serikawa. 2015. Power supply circuit with zero standby power consumption on infrared remote controlled product by using energy harvesting. In Proc. of the International MultiConference of Engineers and Computer Scientists 2015.Google Scholar