Energy Efficiency

, Volume 11, Issue 3, pp 773–776 | Cite as

Mathematical model for estimating variation in specific energy consumption with respect to capacity utilization for aluminum smelting plant

Original Article


Primary aluminum production involves refining of bauxite to alumina and smelting of alumina to aluminum. Smelting is an energy-intensive process and consumes 85–90% of the electrical energy consumption. Under the National Mission on Enhanced Energy Efficiency (NMEEE), PAT (Perform, Achieve, and Trade) has been developed, which is a market-based mechanism to improve energy efficiency in the energy-intensive large industries. By the end of the first PAT cycle I, the energy savings of 0.456 million tons of oil equivalent/year is expected to be achieved, which is around 7% of the total national energy saving targets assessed under PAT. To achieve the targeted energy saving and to ensure unbiased implementation of the PAT scheme, normalization factors were developed by JNARDDC as a sector expert. This paper presents the methodology adopted for the formulation of normalization factor for Indian aluminum electrolysis plants.


Aluminum electrolysis Normalization PAT 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest


  1. Mathur, A. (2015). Normalization document and monitoring & verification guidelines, aluminum sector, bureau of energy efficiency. New Delhi: Ministry of Power, Government of India.Google Scholar
  2. Iffert, M. (2007). Aluminium smelting cell control and optimization, thesis, school of chemical sciences and engineering. Sydney: The University of New South Wales.Google Scholar
  3. US DOE. (2007). U.S. energy requirements for aluminum production 2007, historical perspective, theoretical limits and current practices, energy efficiency and renewable energy. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of energy.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • V K Jha
    • 1
  • A Agnihotri
    • 1
  • R J Sharma
    • 1
  • M J Chaddha
    • 1
  1. 1.Jawaharlal Nehru Aluminium Research Development and Design Centre (JNARDDC)NagpurIndia

Personalised recommendations