Assessing the energy saving potential of anidolic system in the tropics
- 22 Downloads
Employing the edge-ray principle, the anidolic system (AS) has been proven as a promising daylighting solution for various climates. However, studies on the thermal performance of an AS are still rare. Because of the dominant contribution of the space-cooling load to building energy consumption at the operational stage in hot climates, knowledge of the impact of AS application on the space-cooling load is important. This study assessed the energy-saving potential of AS in the tropics by measuring the daylight level and distribution, as well as the solar heat gain, based on Radiance and EnergyPlus simulations using weather files of two locations in the tropics—Yogyakarta and Singapore. Monitoring data of a full-scale, unoccupied test building was acquired to validate the Radiance simulations and EnergyPlus models. A comparison between the energy-saving potential for lighting and cooling of AS and conventional aperture models showed that the application of AS in the tropics benefits the daylighting performance (DF ≥ 3% and horizontal distribution 51–70%), but still produces higher solar heat gains (44–437% higher than those of clerestory only). Narrow anidolic collectors with medium angular spread (45°–52°) and maximum clerestory height equipped with internal shelves can be applied to produce lower solar heat gain or indoor air temperature (2%) with sufficient daylight levels (≥ 2%) and an increased in horizontal illuminance distribution (> 57%).
KeywordsAnidolic system Daylight factor Indoor illuminance distribution Solar heat gain Tropics
y-m-wide, z-degree-angular spread anidolic collector installed on a x-m-height clerestory
external convective heat transfer coefficient
Adaptive Algorithm for external convective heat transfer coefficient
DOE-2 for external convective heat transfer coefficient
TARP for external convective heat transfer coefficient
MoWiTT for external convective heat transfer coefficient
indoor surface emissivity
interior window surface emissivity
view factor from the window to the other surfaces of the room
internal convective heat transfer coefficient
Adaptive Algorithm for internal convective heat transfer coefficient
TARP for internal convective heat transfer coefficient
- IS WS
intermediate sky with the sun
net heat transfer from the window to the room surfaces
indoor air temperature
outdoor (ambient) air temperature
window to floor area ratio
anidolic system installed on x-m-wide room
x-m-wide anidolic system installed on y-m-wide room
Authors gratefully acknowledge the Directorate of Higher Education Republic Indonesia, Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education in the scheme of Hibah Bersaing (the second year) under the contract number 005/HB-LIT/III/2015 (Government to University) for supporting this study.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- ASHRAE. (2013). ASHRAE Handbook: Fundamental. Atlanta: ASHRAE.Google Scholar
- Binarti, F. (2009). Energy-Efficient Window for Classroom in Warm Tropical Area. 11th International IBPSA Conference, Glasgow, Scotland, UK, July 27–30, 2009, pp.1655–1662.Google Scholar
- Crawley, D.B., Lawrie, L.K., Winkelmann, F.C., Buhl, W.F., Pedersen, C.O., Strand, R.K., Liesen, R.J., Fisher, D.E., Witte, M.J., Henninger, R.H., Glazer, J., & Shirey, D. (2013). EnergyPlus v.8.1. Atlanta, Georgia.Google Scholar
- Ellis, P. G. (2003). Development and validation of the unvented Trombe Wall model in EnergyPlus. USA: Master Thesis. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.Google Scholar
- Erell, E., Kaftan, E., & Garb, Y. (2014). Daylighting for Visual Comfort and Energy Conservation in Offices in Sunny Regions. Proc. of 30th International PLEA Conference - Sustainable Habitat for Developing Societies, Ahmedabad, India, 16–18 December 2014.Google Scholar
- Goia, F. (2016). Search for the optimal window-to-wall ratio in office buildings in different European climates and the implication on total energy saving potential. Applied Energy, 132, 467–492.Google Scholar
- Kleindienst, S.A. (2006). Improving the daylighting conditions of existing buildings: the benefits and limitations of integrating anidolic daylighting systems using the American classroom as a model. Master thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA, 2006.Google Scholar
- Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED). (2009). Reference Guide for Green Building Design and Construction, for the Design, Construction and Major Renovations of Commercial and Institutional Building Including Core and Shell K-12 School Projects, ed.www.usgbc.org. Accessed 6 November 2010.
- Marsch, A.(2005). Ecotect Software v.5.5. Square One, Cardiff.Google Scholar
- McNeil, A. & Lee, E. (2012). A validation of the Radiance three phase simulation method for modeling annual daylight performance of optically complex fenestration systems. Building Performance Simulation 1–14. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/19401493.2012.671852.
- Michael, A., Gregoriou, S., & Kalogirou, S. A. (2017). Environmental assessment of an integrated adaptive system for the improvement of indoor visual comfort of existing buildings. Renewable Energy, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2017.07.079.
- Praditwattanakit, R., Chaiwiwatworakul, P., & Chirarattananon, S. (2013). Anidolic concentrator to enhance the daylight use in tropical buildings. In: International Conference on Alternative Energy in Developing Countries and Emerging Economies. Bangkok, Thailand, 30–31 May 2013, ftp://220.127.116.11/04.April2013/Dowload/print/ 139_Rut%20Praditwattanakit.docx. Accessed 7 August 2014.
- Prasetyo, S. S., & Kusumarini, Y. (2016). Studi Efisiensi dan Konservasi Energi pada Interior Gedung P Universitas Kristen Petra. Jurnal INTRA, 4(1), 36–45.Google Scholar
- Pritchard, D.C. (ed). (1986). Interior lighting design, 6th ed., London: The Lighting Industry Federation Ltd. And The Electricity Council.Google Scholar
- Rahim, R. & Mulyadi, R. (2004). Preliminary study of horizontal illuminance in Indonesia. In: 5th SENVAR, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor, Malaysia, 10–12 December 2004, pp.1–10.Google Scholar
- Roshan, M., Kandar, M. Z. B., Nikpur, M., Mohammadi, M. P., & Ghasemi, M. (2013). Investigating the performance of anidolic daylighting system with respect to building orientation in tropical area. IRACST-ESTIJ, 3, 74–79.Google Scholar
- Standar Nasional Indonesia (SNI). (2011). SNI-6390: Konservasi energi sistem tata udara bangunan gedung. Jakarta: Badan Standardisasi Nasional.Google Scholar
- Sunaga, N., Soebarto, V., Hyde, R., Ribeiro, M. A. Junghans, L., Binarti, F., & Calderaro, V. (2008). Chapter 9: design, elements, and strategies. In R. Hyde (Ed.), Bioclimatic housing: innovative designs for warm climates. London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
- Tindale, A. & Potter, S. (2014). DesignBuilder v.4.0. Gloucestershire.Google Scholar
- University of Illinois and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. (2015). EnergyPlus Documentation: Engineering Reference.Google Scholar
- Ward, G. (2002). Desktop radiance software. California: Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory.Google Scholar
- Zhu, D., Hong, T., Yan, D., & Wang, C. (2012). Comparison of building energy modeling programs: building loads. Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) – 6034E. LA.Google Scholar