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Energy Efficiency

, Volume 11, Issue 5, pp 1161–1175 | Cite as

The potential of WHR/batch and cullet preheating for energy efficiency in the EU ETS glass industry and the related energy incentives

  • Sotirios Karellas
  • Dionysios Giannakopoulos
  • Christina-Stavrula Hatzilau
  • Ioannis Dolianitis
  • Georgios Skarpetis
  • Theodoros Zitounis
Original Article

Abstract

The European Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) covers approximately 45% of European greenhouse gases (GHGs), 11,000 stationary installations as well as aircraft operators. The EU ETS particularly affects the energy-intensive industries while it imposes a significant risk of “carbon leakage,” i.e., the risk of EU industry departing to countries with weaker restraints on GHG emissions. The EU glass industry, being capital intensive and also requiring long investment cycles, is the world’s largest glass producer with a market share close to one third of global production. Therefore, it is of significant importance to view the position of the EU ETS glass industry in terms of energy conservation possibilities. The present paper utilizes a vertical approach to provide information on both ETS market evolution and specific technical information to support technological innovation to the glass industry. EU ETS glass industry is analyzed regarding the balance between allocated European Union emission allowances (EUAs), verified CO2 emissions, and potential shortfall in allowances so as to determine the situation of glass industries and the extent of urge for energy-saving activities towards the strengthening of their position within the requirements of the EU ETS phase III. The replication potential of waste heat recovery (WHR) through batch preheating is specifically addressed since it is considered a promising technology according to the latest Best Available Techniques (BAT) reference document for the glass industry under Directive IED 2010/75/EU. A case study for a container glass furnace based on simulation results is presented investigating the impact of different operating and design configurations on specific energy consumption and CO2 emissions.

Keywords

EU emissions trading Glass industry Energy saving Waste heat recovery 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The present work was conducted as part of the “CO2-Glass” project under the Competitiveness & Innovation Framework Programme (CIP) Entrepreneurship & Innovation Programme 2007-2013 (EIP) of the European Commission DG ENTERPRISE AND INDUSTRY Sustainable Industry Low Carbon Scheme Short term innovation measures – SILC I – Action 67/G/ENT/CIP/13/D/N03S02.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sotirios Karellas
    • 1
  • Dionysios Giannakopoulos
    • 2
  • Christina-Stavrula Hatzilau
    • 1
  • Ioannis Dolianitis
    • 2
  • Georgios Skarpetis
    • 3
  • Theodoros Zitounis
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Mechanical EngineeringNational Technical University of AthensAthensGreece
  2. 2.Centre for Research & Technology HellasChemical Process & Energy Resources InstitutePtolemaisGreece
  3. 3.Drujba GlassworksSofiaBulgaria

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