Energy Efficiency

, Volume 10, Issue 5, pp 1299–1314 | Cite as

Low power mode energy demand of household appliances—SELINA and APP projects

  • Carlos Patrão
  • Aníbal T. de Almeida
  • Bob Harrison
  • Barbara Schlomann
  • Melissa Damnics
  • Paula Fonseca
Review Article
  • 120 Downloads

Abstract

In the last decades, it has been recognized that energy consumption in low power modes for electrical and electronic products is an important issue. There is a need to expand energy efficiency efforts beyond simple standby modes into the new more complex area of networks, thus tackling the new paradigm of living based on the Internet of Things. The European project SELINA carried out a large scale in store monitoring campaign, measuring about 6300 different equipment. Since then, there is no reference to other similar market surveillance studies being carried out in Europe. In Asia, a market surveillance campaign performed by the Asia Pacific Partnership with measurements on a regular basis has been very successful. SELINA results show that 18.5% of the measured products present power values higher than the 2010 EC 1275/2008 regulation threshold in off-mode, and for standby this value reached 31%. When a comparison is made with the 2013 EC 1275/2008 regulation threshold, these values increase twice. The Asia Pacific Partnership results alert policy makers that low passive standby does not guarantee low active standby. Several studies indicate that consumer electronic products are becoming more efficient and their energy consumption is decreasing. However, because the ownership of appliances is also increasing, these improvements in energy efficiency do not seem to have significant impact in the overall consumption of the households. In addition, there is evidence that not all appliances in the market reach the performance announced by the manufacturers. Recent measurements carried out by the Natural Resources Defense Council on flat screen TVs revealed that their real energy consumption seems to be higher than announced in the label. This shows the urgent need for measurement campaigns, since no market surveillance is being carried out on regular basis, and trusting the manufacturer’s data seems to be unreliable.

Keywords

Standby power Network standby Low power mode Electronic appliances Entertainment appliances Information and communication technology Energy efficiency Internet of Things 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The SELINA Project was co-financed by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union.

All efforts were done to ensure accuracy of the measurements, with appropriate developed methodology and test equipment. Other parties are welcome to provide alternative measurements carried out by a certified institution.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Bertoldi, P., Hirl, B. and Labanca, N. (2012). Electricity consumption and efficiency trends in the EU-27 [Report]/Institute for Energy; European Commission, Joint Research Centre. [s.l.]: Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union (ISBN 978–92–79-25604-2), 2012. online: http://re.jrc.ec.europa.eu/energyefficiency/publications.htm, ISBN 978–92–79-13614-6.
  2. Bertoldi, P., et al. (2015) The European code of conduct for broadband equipment and its impact on energy consumption [Article] // 8th International Conference on Energy Efficiency in Domestic Appliances and Lighting—EEDAL’15. Lucerne, Switzerland: European Commission, JRC, Renewable Energy UnitGoogle Scholar
  3. de Almeida, A., et al. (2011). Characterization of the household electricity consumption in the EU, potential energy savings and specific policy recommendations. [Journal] // Energy and Buildings. [s.l.]: Elsevier, 43(8), 1884–1894.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. de Almeida, A., et al. (2012). Energy-efficient elevators and escalators in Europe: an analysis of energy efficiency potentials and policy measures [Article] //. Energy and Buildings. [s.l.]: Elsevier, 47, 151–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Asia Pacific Partnership. (2011). Standby power: the phantom in the machine [Report].Google Scholar
  6. Burgett, J. M. (2015). Fixing the American energy leak: the effectiveness of a whole-house switch for reducing standby power loss in U.S. residences. [Journal] // Energy Research & Social Science, 6, 87–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Consulting Maia. (2011) A decade of Australian store surveys, measuring standby power 2001–2011 [Report]. [s.l.]: www.energyrating.gov.au, December 2011.
  8. ENER, DG. (2013).Working document—Impact assessment for the amending Commission Regulation (EC) No 1275/2008 and amending Regulation (EC) No 642/2009 [Report]. [s.l.]: European Comission.Google Scholar
  9. EuP Lot26. (2011). Fraunhofer-IZM, Bio Intelligence Service, EuP Preparatory Study Lot26—Networked standby losses, Final Report Task 7—Improvement Potential [Report].Google Scholar
  10. EuP Lot6. (2007). Fraunhofer IZM: EuP Preparatory Study Lot6 “Standby and off-mode losses” (TREN/Lot 6), Final Report [Report]. Online: http://www.ecostandby.org.
  11. European Commission. (2008). Regulation Commission Regulation (EC) N° 1275/2008 [Report].Google Scholar
  12. European Commission. (2013). European Commission Regulation (EU) N° 801/2013 (amending Regulation (EC) No 1275/2008) [Report]. [s.l.]: European Comission.Google Scholar
  13. European Commission. (2017). Energy efficient products [Online] // EC Energy. European Commission. http://ec.europa.eu/energy/en/topics/energy-efficiency/energy-efficient-products.
  14. Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi). (2014a). Energy-efficient ICT for SMEs, the administration and the home—IT2Green. A Technology Programme by the German Federal Minstiry for Economic Affairs and Energy [Report]. Berlin: www.bmwi.de.
  15. Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi). (2014b). Energy-efficient ICT in practice. Planning and implementation of GreenIT measures in data centres and the office [Report]. Berlin: www.bmwi.de.
  16. Firth, S., et al. (2008). Identifying trends in the use of domestic appliances from household electricity consumption measurements. [Journal] // Energy and Buildings, 40(5), 926–936.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Freire-González, J. (2017). Evidence of direct and indirect rebound effect in households in EU-27 countries. [Journal] // Energy Policy. [s.l.]: Elsevier, 102, 270–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gadgets and Gigawatts. (2009). IEA (International Energy Agency): gadgets and gigawatts. Policies for energy efficient electronics [Report]. Paris: OECD/IEA. online: http://www.iea.org.
  19. Guan, L, Berrill, T and Brown, R. J. (2011). Measurement of standby power for selected electrical appliances in Australia [Journal] // Energy and Buildings. [s.l.]: Elsevier, 43(2–3), 485–490.Google Scholar
  20. Harrington, L. and Nordman, B. (2014). Beyond network standby: [Report]. [s.l.]: International Energy Agency: implementing agreement on efficient electrical end-use equipment (4E).Google Scholar
  21. Hiller, C. (2015). Factors influencing residents’ energy use—a study of energy-related behaviour in 57 Swedish homes. [Journal] // Energy and Buildings. [s.l.]: Elsevier, 87, 243–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. IEA 4E. (2012). Standby trends for televisions [Report]/IEA 4E–Efficient electrical end-use equipment, International Energy Agency. [s.l.]: Special report submitted to the Clean Energy Ministerial Meetings.Google Scholar
  23. IEA 4E EDNA. (2016). Energy efficiency of the Internet of Things—Technology and Energy Assessment Report [Report]. [s.l.]: IEA 4E EDNA.Google Scholar
  24. Kwatra, S., Amann, J. and Sachs, H. (2013). Miscellaneous energy loads in buildings [Report]. [s.l.]: ACEEE.Google Scholar
  25. Meier, A. and Lebot, B. (1999). One Watt Initiative : a global effort to reduce leaking electricity [Conference] // 1999 Summer Study of the European Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy. France: [s.n.].Google Scholar
  26. NRDC. (2016). The secret costs of manufacturers exploiting loopholes in the government’s TV energy test: $1.2 billion for consumers & millions of tons of pollution [Report]/Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC). California: [s.n.].Google Scholar
  27. OECD/IEA. (2014). More data, less energy: making network standby more efficient in billions of connected [Report]. Paris: International Energy Agency (IEA).Google Scholar
  28. Pothitou, M., Hanna, R. F., & Chalvatzis, K. J. (2017). ICT entertainment appliances’ impact on domestic electricity consumption [Article] //. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. [s.l.]: Elsevier, 69, 843–853.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sahin, M. C., & Koksal, M. A. (2014). Standby electricity consumption and saving potentials of Turkish households. [Journal] // Applied Energy. [s.l.]: Elsevier, 114, 531–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Schlomann, B., Eichhammer W. and Stobbe L. (2015). Energy saving potential of information and communication technology [Journal] // International Journal of Decision Support Systems (IJDSS). [s.l.]: Inderscience, 1(2).Google Scholar
  31. SELINA European Project. (n.d.2008–2010). SELINA—standby and off-mode energy losses in new appliances measured in shops [Report]. [s.l.] IEE/07/563/SI2.499206.Google Scholar
  32. Urban, B., Tiefenbeck, V. and Roth K. (2011). Energy consumption of consumer electronics in U.S. homes in 2010 [Report]. [s.l.]: Fraunhofer USA Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE) to the Consumer Electronics Association (CEA)Google Scholar
  33. Urban, B., et al. (2014). Energy consumption of consumer electronics in U.S. homes in 2013 [Report]. [s.l.]: Fraunhofer USA Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE) to the Consumer Electronics Association (CEA).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of CoimbraCoimbraPortugal
  2. 2.IntertekLondonUK
  3. 3.Fraunhofer-ISIKarlsruheGermany
  4. 4.Maia ConsultingMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations