Energy Efficiency

, Volume 9, Issue 2, pp 385–400 | Cite as

Multifamily energy-efficiency retrofit programs: a Florida case study

  • Nicholas W. Taylor
  • Jennison K. Searcy
  • Pierce H. Jones
Original Article

Abstract

Multifamily buildings are an important target for efficiency improvements because of their energy savings potential and housing market share. Yet few multifamily retrofit projects have been completed in hot-humid regions and even fewer studies have measured and verified savings from such projects. Addressing this gap, the purpose of our research is to assess the impacts of energy-efficiency upgrades to multifamily buildings in Orlando, FL. Specifically, we measure the first-year electricity savings from retrofits to 232 units in four apartment complexes. Annual savings per unit averaged 2094 kWh (22 %) and ranged from 1700 kWh (18 %) to 3811 kWh (29 %) across complexes. Monthly savings ranged from 48 kWh (9.4 %) in December to 340 kWh (31 %) in August. From these core findings, we estimate that tenants in treatment units saved an average of $272 on their electric bills. We also find evidence to support a strategy of targeting upgrades to improve overall savings and program cost-effectiveness. Results are being used to guide development of a utility demand-side management program for multifamily property owners. Progress in this market requires additional pilot projects, access to utility data, reliable measurement and verification of savings, and innovative financing structures.

Keywords

Energy efficiency Demand-side management (DSM) Multifamily buildings Residential retrofits Impact assessment Electricity savings Measurement and verification (M&V) Project case study Hot-humid climate High-efficiency HVAC 

Supplementary material

12053_2015_9367_MOESM1_ESM.docx (187 kb)
ESM 1(DOCX 186 kb)

References

  1. Arena, L., & Williamson, J. (2013). Predicted versus actual savings for a low-rise multifamily retrofit in Boulder, Colorado - 60433.pdf. http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy14osti/60433.pdf. Accessed 27 Feb 2014.
  2. Arizona State University (2013). Energize Phoenix. http://energize.asu.edu/energize-az/summative-reports/. Accessed 28 July 2014.
  3. Baechler, M. C., Williamson, J. L., Gilbride, T. L., Cole, P. C., Hefty, M. G., & Love, P. M. (2010). Building America best practices series: volume 7.1: guide to determining climate regions by county. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1068658. Accessed 4 Sep 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Benningfield Group, Inc. (2009). U.S. Multifamily energy efficiency potential by 2020. http://www.benningfieldgroup.com/docs/Final_MF_EE_Potential_Report_Oct_2009_v2.pdf. Accessed 22 Aug 2014.
  5. Bird, S., & Hernández, D. (2012). Policy options for the split incentive: increasing energy efficiency for low-income renters. Energy Policy, 48, 506–514. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2012.05.053.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Black & Veatch. (2013). Orlando utilities commission 2013 annual conservation report. http://www.floridapsc.com/utilities/electricgas/ARdemandside/2012/OUC.pdf.
  7. Braman, J., Kolberg, S., & Perlman, J. (2014). Energy and water savings in multifamily retrofits. http://www.sahfnet.org/mfretrofitreport_11_1287596736.pdf. Accessed 4 Sept 2014.
  8. Brown, M., & Wolfe, M. (2007). Energy efficiency in multi-family housing: a profile and analysis (p. 35). Energy programs consortium. http://aceee.org/files/pdf/resource/brown_and_wolfe_energy_efficiency_in_multifamily_housing_2007.pdf. Accessed 18 Nov 2013.
  9. Chasar, D., & Martin, E. (2013). Efficient multifamily homes in a hot humid climate by Atlantic Housing Partners / (No. DOE/GO-102013-3887) (p. 22). U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program,. http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy13osti/57721.pdf.
  10. Clark, K. E., & Berry, D. (1995). House characteristics and the effectiveness of energy conservation measures. Journal of the American Planning Association, 61(3), 386. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=ip,uid&db=slh&AN=9508023386&site=ehost-live. Accessed 2 Sept 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Deutsche Bank Americas Foundation, Living Cities, Steven Winter Associates, & HR&A Advisors (2012). Recognizing the benefits of energy efficiency in multifamily underwriting (p. 109). https://www.db.com/usa/img/DBLC_Recognizing_the_Benefits_of_Energy_Efficiency_01_12.pdf. Accessed 22 Apr 2013.
  12. DOE. (2013). Group home energy efficiency retrofit for 30% energy savings: Washington, D.C. (fact sheet) (no. DOE/GO-102013-4088). Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1114078. Accessed 27 Feb 2014.Google Scholar
  13. Efficiency Valuation Organization (EVO) (2014). International performance measurement and verification protocol: core concepts (Technical Report No. EVO 10000–1:2014) (p. 28). http://www.evo-world.org/index.php?view=download&alias=1680-2014-ipmvp-volume-i-in-english&option=com_docman&Itemid=1585&lang=en. Accessed 21 Aug 2014.
  14. Energy Programs Consortium (2013). Multifamily energy efficiency: reported barriers and emerging practices (p. 54). Washington, DC. http://aceee.org/files/pdf/resource/epc_%20multifamily_housing_13.pdf. Accessed 5 Sept 2014.
  15. Florida Housing Data Clearinghouse (2014). http://flhousingdata.shimberg.ufl.edu/. Accessed 28 Aug 2014.
  16. Glynn, E. (2013). The green retrofit initiative. Communities & Banking, 24(1), 24–27. http://search.proquest.com/docview/1237151196/citation?accountid=10920. Accessed 13 Sept 2013.Google Scholar
  17. Goldman, C. A., & Ritschard, R. L. (1986). Energy conservation in public housing: a case study of the San Francisco housing authority. Energy and Buildings, 9(1–2), 89–98. doi:10.1016/0378-7788(86)90010-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Goldman, C. A., Greely, K. M., & Harris, J. P. (1988). Retrofit experience in U.S. multifamily buildings: energy savings, costs, and economics. Energy, 13(11), 797–811. doi:10.1016/0360-5442(88)90085-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Goldman, C. A., Stuart, E., Hoffman, I., Fuller, M. C., & Billingsley, M. A. (2011). Interactions between energy efficiency programs funded under the recovery act and utility customer-funded energy efficiency programs (No. LBNL-4322E). Berkeley, CA: Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1008331. Accessed 16 Apr 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. HUD (n.d.). Quantifying energy efficiency in multifamily rental housing | HUD USER. http://www.huduser.org/portal/periodicals/em/summer11/highlight1.html#title. Accessed 22 Apr 2013.
  21. Johnson, K., & Mackres, E. (2013). Scaling up multifamily energy efficiency programs: a metropolitan area assessment (research no. E135) (p. 105). Washington, DC: American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy. http://www.aceee.org/sites/default/files/publications/researchreports/e135.pdf. Accessed 10 Apr 2013.Google Scholar
  22. Krukowski, A., & Burr, A. (2012). Energy transparency in the multifamily housing sector: assessing energy benchmarking and disclosure policies (p. 46). Washington, DC: Institute for Market Transformation. http://www.imt.org/uploads/resources/files/Energy_Trans_MFSector_IMT_Final.pdf. Accessed 12 Apr 2013.Google Scholar
  23. Kummer, J., Nix, O., & Drees, K. (2011). Measurement and verification of energy savings: issue brief. Institute for Building Efficiency, Johnson Controls. http://www.institutebe.com/InstituteBE/media/Library/Resources/Energy%20and%20Climate%20Policy/Measurement-and-Verification-of-Energy-Savings-Issue-Brief.pdf. Accessed 21 Aug 2014.
  24. Kyrö, R., Heinonen, J., & Junnila, S. (2012). Housing managers key to reducing the greenhouse gas emissions of multi-family housing companies? A mixed method approach. Building and Environment, 56, 203–210. doi:10.1016/j.buildenv.2012.03.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lazar, J., & Colburn, K. (2013). Recognizing the full value of energy efficiency. Regulatory assistance project. http://cleanenergycoops.org/downloads/RAP_LazarColburn_2013.pdf. Accessed 24 Feb 2014.
  26. Lyons, J., Moore, M., & Thompson, M. (2013). Bay Ridge Gardens - mixed-humid affordable multifamily housing deep energy retrofit (no. DOE/GO-102013-3957). Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1090972. Accessed 27 Feb 2014.Google Scholar
  27. Malhotra, M., MacDonald, M., Accawi, G. K., New, J. R., & Im, P. (2012). National energy audit tool for multifamily buildings development plan (no. ORNL/TM-2010/328, 1037628). http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1037628. Accessed 16 April 2013.
  28. Maruejols, L., & Young, D. (2011). Split incentives and energy efficiency in Canadian multi-family dwellings. Energy Policy, 39(6), 3655–3668. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2011.03.072.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. McIlvaine, J., Sutherland, K., & Martin, E. (2013). Energy retrofit field study and best practices in a hot-humid climate (no. DOE/GO-102013-3896, 1069164). http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1069164. Accessed 16 Apr 2013.
  30. McKibbin, A., Evens, A., Nadel, S., & Mackres, E. (2012). Engaging as partners in energy efficiency: multifamily housing and utilities (research no. A122) (p. 52). CNT Energy and American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE). http://www.aceee.org/sites/default/files/publications/researchreports/a122.pdf. Accessed 9 Apr 2013.
  31. McKinsey & Company. (2009). Unlocking energy efficiency in the US economy. http://www.mckinsey.com/client_service/electric_power_and_natural_gas/latest_thinking/unlocking_energy_efficiency_in_the_us_economy. Accessed 22 Apr 2013.
  32. Metzger, C., Arena, L., & Williamson, J. (2013). Evaluation of a multifamily retrofit in climate zone 5, Boulder, Colorado (fact sheet) (no. DOE/GO-102013-4259). Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1105084. Accessed 27 Feb 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Morelli, M., Rønby, L., Mikkelsen, S. E., Minzari, M. G., Kildemoes, T., & Tommerup, H. M. (2012). Energy retrofitting of a typical old Danish multi-family building to a “nearly-zero” energy building based on experiences from a test apartment. Energy and Buildings, 54, 395–406. doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2012.07.046.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Nadel, S. M., & Keating, K. M. (1991). Engineering estimates vs. impact evaluation results: how do they compare and why? (research no. U915) (pp. 1–14). Washington, DC: American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy. http://www.aceee.org/sites/default/files/publications/researchreports/U915.pdf. Accessed 5 Feb 2013.Google Scholar
  35. National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency (2008). Understanding cost-effectiveness of energy efficiency programs: best practices, technical methods, and emerging issues for policy-makers (technical report) (p. 96). www.epa.gov/eeactionplan: Energy and Environmental Economics, Inc. and Regulatory Assistance Project. http://www.epa.gov/cleanenergy/documents/suca/cost-effectiveness.pdf. Accessed 8 Aug 2014.
  36. National Housing Trust. (2013). Partnering for success: an action guide for advancing utility energy efficiency funding for multifamily rental housing (p. 44). Washington, DC: National Housing Trust. http://www.nhtinc.org/downloads/partnering-for-success-action-guide.pdf.Google Scholar
  37. Pérez-Lombard, L., Ortiz, J., & Pout, C. (2008). A review on buildings energy consumption information. Energy and Buildings, 40(3), 394–398. doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2007.03.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Philbrick, D., Scheu, R., & Evens, A. (2014). Preserving affordable multifamily housing through energy efficiency: non-energy benefits of energy efficiency building improvements (p. 14). Elevate Energy. http://www.elevateenergy.org/wp-content/uploads/Preserving_Affordable_Multifamily_Housing_Through_Energy_Efficiency.pdf. Accessed 14 Feb 2014.
  39. Polly, B., Kruis, N., & Roberts, D. (2011). Assessing and improving the accuracy of energy analysis for residential buildings (technical report) (p. 41). Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Golden, CO. http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy11osti/50865.pdf. Accessed 5 Sept 2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Schiller, S. R. (2007). National action plan for energy efficiency: model energy efficiency program impact evaluation guide (p. 152). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. http://www.epa.gov/cleanenergy/documents/suca/evaluation_guide.pdf. Accessed 19 Feb 2014.
  41. Sonderegger, R. C. (1978). Movers and stayers: the resident’s contribution to variation across houses in energy consumption for space heating. Energy and Buildings, 1(3), 313–324. doi:10.1016/0378-7788(78)90011-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Sutherland, K., & Martin, E. (2013). Short-term test results: transitional housing energy efficiency retrofit in the hot-humid climate (No. DOE/GO-102013-3853, 1063693). http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1063693. Accessed 16 Apr 2013.
  43. Taylor, N. W., Jones, P. H., & Kipp, M. J. (2014). Targeting utility customers to improve energy savings from conservation and efficiency programs. Applied Energy, 115, 25–36. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2013.10.012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. The New myOUC (2014). http://www.ouc.com/. Accessed 8 Sept 2014.
  45. Webster, L., & Bradford, J. (2008). M&V guidelines: measurement and verification for federal energy projects. Version 3.0. U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program. http://www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/pdfs/mv_guidelines.pdf. Accessed 21 Aug 2014.
  46. Yang, L., Yan, H., & Lam, J. C. (2014). Thermal comfort and building energy consumption implications – a review. Applied Energy, 115, 164–173. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2013.10.062.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nicholas W. Taylor
    • 1
  • Jennison K. Searcy
    • 1
  • Pierce H. Jones
    • 1
  1. 1.Program for Resource Efficient CommunitiesUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations