Energy efficiency improvement potentials and a low energy demand scenario for the global industrial sector
- 632 Downloads
The adoption of energy efficiency measures can significantly reduce industrial energy use. This study estimates the future industrial energy consumption under two energy demand scenarios: (1) a reference scenario that follows business as usual trends and (2) a low energy demand scenario that takes into account the implementation of energy efficiency improvement measures. These scenarios cover energy demand in the period 2009–2050 for ten world regions. The reference scenario is based on the International Energy Agency World Energy Outlook (2011 edition) up to 2035 and is extrapolated by Gross Domestic Product projections for the period 2035–2050. According to the reference scenario, the industrial energy use will increase from 105 EJ in 2009 to 185 EJ in 2050 (excluding fuel use as a feedstock). It is estimated that, with the adoption of energy efficient technologies and increased recycling, the growth in industrial energy use in 2050 can be limited to 140 EJ, an annual energy use increase of 0.7 % compared with the 2009 case. The 2050 industrial energy use in the low energy demand scenario is estimated to be 24 % lower than the 2050 energy use in the reference scenario. The results of this study highlight the importance of industrial energy efficiency by providing insights of the energy savings potentials in different regions of the world.
KeywordsIndustrial energy use Energy scenario Industrial energy savings Industrial energy efficiency
This study is based on previous studies concerning energy demand scenarios prepared for Greenpeace/EREC and UBA in cooperation with DLR. The views and research in this study do not necessarily represent their views.
- Bureau of International Recycling (BIR) (2012). World steel recycling in figures 2007–2011: Steel scrap—a raw material for steel making. http://www.bir.org/assets/Documents/publications/brochures/WorldSteelinFiguresIIIFINLoRes.pdf. Accessed 10 July 2013.
- Confederation of European Paper Industries (CEPI) (2006). Europe global champion in paper recycling: Paper industries meet ambitious target. http://www.cepi.org/system/files/public/documents/pressreleases/recycling/2006/PRRECYCLING.pdf. Accessed 10 July 2013.
- Confederation of European Paper Industries (CEPI) (2011). CEPI sustainability report 2011. http://www.cepi-sustainability.eu/uploads/Sustainability_Report_WEB.pdf. Accessed 10 July 2013.
- De Beer, J. (1998). Potential for industrial energy-efficiency improvement in the long term. PhD thesis, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands.Google Scholar
- Energy Information Administration (EIA). (1999). Model documentation report: Industrial sector demand module of the national energy modeling system. Energy Information Administration. Washington, D.C: U.S. Department of Energy.Google Scholar
- Eurofer (2011). 2007-2011 European steel in figures. http://www.eurofer.org/eurofer/Publications/pdf/2011-ESF.pdf. Accessed 6 May 2013.
- European Aluminium Association (EAA) (2010). Sustainability of the European aluminium industry 2010. http://www.alueurope.eu/pdf/2010%20Sustainability%20of%20the%20European%20aluminium%20industry.pdf. Accessed 15 August 2013.
- European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau (EIPPCB) (2013). Best available techniques (BAT) reference document for iron and steel production. http://eippcb.jrc.ec.europa.eu/reference/. Accessed 8 July 2013.
- European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau (EIPPCB) (2010). Reference document on best available techniques in the cement, lime and magnesium oxide manufacturing industries. http://eippcb.jrc.ec.europa.eu/reference/BREF/clm_bref_0510.pdf. Accessed 10 May 2013.
- Fleiter, T., Schlomann, B., & Eichhammer, W. (2013). Energieverbrauch und CO 2 -Emissionen industrieller Prozesstechnologien—Einsparpotenziale, Hemmnisse und Instrumente, Stuttgart, Germany.Google Scholar
- Food and Agriculture Organization Statistics (FAOSTAT) (2013). Forestry statistics. http://faostat.fao.org/site/626/DesktopDefault.aspx?PageID=626#ancor. Accessed 29 November 2013.
- Global Aluminium Recycling Committee (GARC) (2009). Global aluminium recycling: A cornerstone of sustainable development. http://www.world-aluminium.org/cache/fl0000181.pdf. Accessed 15 August 2013.
- Graus, W., & Kermeli, K. (2012). Energy demand projections for energy [R]evolution 2012. Utrecht University, commissioned by Greenpeace International and DLR.Google Scholar
- Green, J. A. S. (2007). Aluminum recycling and processing for energy conservation and sustainability. Materials Park: ASM International.Google Scholar
- Gu, S., & Wu, J. (2012). Review on the energy saving technologies applied in Bayer process in China (pp. 379–384). Perth: Proceeding of the 9th International alumina quality workshop 2012.Google Scholar
- Hekkert, M.P., Joosten L.A.J., & Worrell, E. (1998). Material efficiency improvement for European packaging in the period 2000–2020. In Factor 2 / Factor 10, Utrecht.Google Scholar
- Henrickson, L. (2010). The need for energy efficiency in Bayer refining. Proceedings of TMS Annual Meeting – Light Metals, 173-178.Google Scholar
- International Aluminium Institute (IAI) 2013a. 2010 Life cycle inventory data for the worldwide primary aluminium industry. http://www.world-aluminium.org/. Accessed 02 September 2023.
- International Aluminium Institute (IAI) 2013b. Current IAI statistics. http://www.world-aluminium.org/Statistics. Accessed 15 May 2013.
- International Energy Agency (IEA) (2004). Energy statistics manual. Paris, France.Google Scholar
- International Energy Agency (IEA) (2007). Tracking industrial energy efficiency and CO 2 emissions. Paris, France.Google Scholar
- International Energy Agency (IEA) (2008). Energy Technology Perspectives 2008—Scenarios And Strategies To 2050. Paris, France.Google Scholar
- International Energy Agency (IEA) (2009a). Energy technology transitions for industry: Strategies for the next industrial revolution. Paris, France.Google Scholar
- International Energy Agency (IEA). (2009b). Chemical and petrochemical sector: Potential of best practice technology and other measures for improving energy efficiency. Paris: IEA Information Paper.Google Scholar
- International Energy Agency (IEA) (2011a). Energy balances 2011 edition with 2009 data. Paris, France.Google Scholar
- International Energy Agency (IEA) (2011b). Key world energy statistics-2011. Paris, France.Google Scholar
- International Energy Agency (IEA) (2011c). World energy outlook 2011 edition. Paris, France.Google Scholar
- International Energy Agency (IEA) (2012). Energy technology perspectives 2012—Pathways to a clean energy system. Paris, France.Google Scholar
- International Energy Agency-World Business Council for Sustainable Development (IEA-WBCSD) (2009). Cement technology roadmap 2009—Carbon emissions reductions up to 2050. http://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/Cement.pdf. Accessed 10 May 2013.
- Lempert, R.J., Popper, S.W., Resetar, S.A., & Hart, S.L. (2002). Capital cycles and the timing of climate change policy. Pew center on global climate change, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
- Li, W., Liu, J., Liu, Z., & Wang, Y. (2008). The most important sustainable development issues of Chinese alumina industry. Light Metals, 191-195.Google Scholar
- Linhoff March (2000). The methodology and benefits of total site pinch analysis. Linhoff March Energy Services.Google Scholar
- Nadel, S. (2012). The rebound effect: Large or small? Washington: American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE).Google Scholar
- Neelis, M., & Patel, M. (2006). Long-term production, energy consumption and CO 2 emission scenarios for the worldwide iron and steel industry. Utrecht University.Google Scholar
- Overgaag, M., Harmsen, R., & Schmitz, A. (2009). Sectoral Emission Reduction Potentials and Economic Costs for Climate Change (SERPEC-CC), Industry & refineries sector. http://www.ecofys.com/files/files/serpec_executive_summary.pdf. Accessed 17 May 2013.
- Pardo, N., Moya, J.A., & Vatoppoulos, K. (2012). Prospective scenarios on energy efficiency and CO 2 emissions in the EU iron & steel industry. JRC scientific and policy reports. Luxembourg.Google Scholar
- Phylipsen, G.J.M. (2000). International comparisons & national commitments, analysing energy and technology differences in the climate debate. PhD thesis. Utrecht University. Utrecht, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
- Ryan, L., & Campbell, L. (2012). Spreading the net: The multiple benefits of energy efficiency improvements. Paris: International Energy Agency (IEA).Google Scholar
- Saygin, D., Patel, M.K., & Gielen, D.J. (2010). Global industrial energy efficiency benchmarking—An energy policy tool. Working paper. Vienna, Austria.Google Scholar
- Sinton, J. E., Lewis, J. I., Price, L. K., & Worrell, E. (2002). China’s sustainable energy future scenarios and carbon emissions analysis. Sub-report 11: International trends in energy efficiency technologies and policies. Berkeley: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL).Google Scholar
- Staudt, J. (2009). Memorandum to Ravi Srivastava, Samudra Vijay, and Elineth Torres. Costs and performance of controls—Revised from comments. Andover Technology Partners.Google Scholar
- UBA (2010). Role and potential of renewable energy and energy efficiency for global energy supply. By DLR/Ecofys/Wuppertal Institute. Commissioned by Ministry of Environment, Germany.Google Scholar
- United States Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (U.S. DOE-EERE) (2007). U.S. energy requirements for aluminium production, historical perspective, theoretical limits and current practices. http://www1.eere.energy.gov/manufacturing/resources/aluminum/pdfs/al_theoretical.pdf. Accessed August 5 2013.
- United States Geological Survey (USGS) (2002). 2002 Minerals yearbook—Cement [advance release]. Reston, United States.Google Scholar
- United States Geological Survey (USGS) (2007). 2005 Minerals yearbook—Cement [advance release]. Reston, United States.Google Scholar
- United States Geological Survey (USGS) (2011a). 2010 Minerals yearbook—Aluminum [advance release]. Reston, United States.Google Scholar
- United States Geological Survey (USGS) (2011b). 2010 Minerals yearbook—Bauxite and alumina [advance release]. Reston, United States.Google Scholar
- United States Geological Survey (USGS) (2012). 2010 Minerals yearbook—Cement [advance release]. Reston, United States.Google Scholar
- Waide P., & Brunner, C.U. (2011). Energy-efficiency policy opportunities for electric motor-driven systems. International Energy Agency (IEA), working paper. Paris, France.Google Scholar
- Wischnewski, R., de Azevedo, C. M., Jr., Moraes, E. L. S., Jr., & Monteiro, A. B. (2011). ALUNORTE global energy efficiency. Light Metals, 2011, 179–184.Google Scholar
- World Business Council for Sustainable Development/Cement Sustainability Initiative (WBCSD/CSI) (2012). Global cement database on CO2 and energy information. http://wbcsdcement.org/GNR-2010/index.html. Accessed 17 May 2013.
- World Business Council for Sustainable Development/Cement Sustainability Initiative-European Cement Research Academy (WBCSD/CSI-ECRA) (2009). Development of state of the art-techniques in cement manufacturing: Trying to look ahead. Dusseldorf, Geneva.Google Scholar
- World Bank. (2013). World Development Indicators (WDI) 2009. Washington: World Bank.Google Scholar
- World Steel Association (Worldsteel) (2000). Steel statistical yearbook 2000. http://www.worldsteel.org/statistics/statistics-archive/yearbook-archive.html
- World Steel Association (Worldsteel) (2011). Steel statistical yearbook 2011. http://www.worldsteel.org/statistics/statistics-archive/yearbook-archive.html
- Worrell, E., Price, L., Neelis, M., Galitsky, C., & Nan, Z. (2008b). World best practice energy intensity values for selected industrial sectors. Berkeley: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL).Google Scholar
- Worrell, E., Angelini, T., & Masanet, E. (2010). Managing your energy. Berkeley: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL).Google Scholar
- Worrell, E., Kermeli, K., & Galitsky, C. (2013). Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities for cement making. Washington DC: United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA).Google Scholar