Energy Efficiency

, Volume 7, Issue 2, pp 323–333 | Cite as

Residential energy-efficient lighting adoption survey

  • Andrea L. Hicks
  • Thomas L. Theis
Original Article


Artificial lighting has transformed how humans relate to the world, by improving productivity and making spaces habitable. The adoption of energy-efficient solid-state lighting, light emitting diodes (LED), has been suggested as a way of reducing energy used for lighting. Such predictions rest on the assumptions of constant light density and time of use in the future, assumptions not supported by past trends. In order to better understand how consumers choose to adopt energy-efficient artificial lighting for their homes; a survey was administered in four major urban areas: Chicago, Houston, New York, and San Francisco. Major insights from the survey indicate that if lighting becomes less expensive through adopting energy-efficient light sources, there is the potential for consumers to use considerably more, and the point at which the price for LED lighting yields broad market penetration is about one half of current prices. Regional factors such as lighting subsidies, taxation policies, laws, and educational information are also explored.


Artificial lighting LED Residential Lighting consumption Energy efficiency Survey 



Commonwealth Edison


Compact fluorescent light


Consolidated Edison


Cathode ray tube


Liquid crystal display


Light emitting diode


Quadrillion British Thermal units


Teralumen hour


Terawatt hour



The authors would like to acknowledge the following funding sources at the University of Illinois at Chicago for support of this work: Chancellor's Graduate Research Fellowship, Provost's Award for Graduate Research, and the Institute for Environmental Science and Policy Predoctoral Fellowship. Additionally, we thank the Survey Research Laboratory of the University of Illinois at Chicago for assistance with the design of the survey instrument used in this study. The authors respectfully thank the anonymous reviewers for their comments on this article.

Supplementary material

12053_2013_9226_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (346 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 345 kb)
12053_2013_9226_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (158 kb)
ESM 2 (PDF 158 kb)
12053_2013_9226_MOESM3_ESM.pdf (120 kb)
ESM 3 (PDF 119 kb)
12053_2013_9226_MOESM4_ESM.pdf (229 kb)
ESM 4 (PDF 229 kb)


  1. Anderson, S., Wandersee, S., Arcenas, A., & Baumgartner, L. (Retrieved 2013). Craigslist samples of convenience: recruiting hard-to-reach populations. From University of California Santa Barbara: Accessed 13 February 2013.
  2. Attari, S. Z., DeKay, M. L., Davidson, C. I., & de Bruin, W. (2010). Public perception of energy consumption and savings. PNAS, 107(37), 16054–16059.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Azevedo, I. L., Morgan, M. G., & Morgan, F. (2009). The transition to solid-state lighting. Proceedings of the IEEE, 97(3), 481–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Accessed 11 July 2-12.
  5. CenterPoint Energy. Advanced lighting program—residential. (CenterPoint Energy) 14 August 2012.
  6. Chicago climate action plan. (2008). Accessed 31 October 2012.
  7. City of Houston. (2012). Energy efficiency. Green Houston: Accessed 19 October 2012.
  8. ComEd. Light your way to energy savings. (ComEd) Accessed 14 August 2012.
  9. ConEd. Use less energy and save money with Con Edison Multi-Family Energy Efficiency Program. (Con Edison) Accessed 14 August 2012.
  10. Dahmus, J., & Gutowski, T. (2010) Can efficiency improvements reduce resource consumption? A historical analysis of ten activities. Accessed 25 January 2012.
  11. Druckman, A., Chitnis, M., Sorrell, S., & Jackson, T. (2011). Missing carbon reductions? Exploring rebound and backfire effects in UK households. Energy Policy, 39, 3572–3581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Duncan, G. (2006, October 23). LCD TVs take lead by 2007. Accessed 20 December 2012.
  13. Energy Star. (2012) Product retrospective: televisions. Accessed 3 January 2013.
  14. Entergy. (2012). Residential/hard-to-reach/AC & HP standard offer programs. (Entery Texas, Inc.) Accessed 14 August 2012.
  15. Fouquet, R., & Pearson, P. J. (2006). Seven centuries of energy services: the price and use of Light in the United Kingdom (1300–2000). The Energy Journal, 27(1), 139–178.Google Scholar
  16. Greening, L. A., Greene, D. L., & Difiglio, C. (2000). Energy efficiency and consumption—the rebound effect—a survey. Energy Policy, 28, 389–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hsee, C. K., Yu, F., Zhang, J., & Zhang, Y. (2003). Medium maximization. The Journal of Consumer Research, Inc, 3(1), 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lighting Facts. (2012). LED lighting facts. Accessed 12 October 2012
  19. Magennis, N. (2011, November 1). TV buying guide. Accessed 31 December 2012.
  20. Navigant. (2010). Energy savings potential of solid-state lighting in general illumination applications 2010–2030. United States Department of EnergyGoogle Scholar
  21. Navigant. (2012a). Life-cycle assessment of energy and environmental impacts of LED lighting products—Part 1. United States Department of EnergyGoogle Scholar
  22. Navigant. (2012b), 2010 US lighting market characterization. United States Department of EnergyGoogle Scholar
  23. NYC Department of Sanitation. (2012). Lighting. Accessed 19 October 2012.
  24. NYSERDA. (2012). Residential. Accessed 31 October 2012.
  25. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. (2006). Compact fluorescent lighting in America: lessons learned on the way to market.Google Scholar
  26. Paczkowski, J. (2012, March 27). Flat-panel TV sales flatten in US. All Things D. Accessed 19 December 2012.
  27. PG&E. (2012). Rebates for Your Home. (Pacific Gas and Electric) Retrieved August 14, 2012, from
  28. Pierce, J., Schinao, D. J., & Paulos, E. (2010). Home, habits, and energy: examining domestic interactions and energy consumption. CHI 2010.Google Scholar
  29. PlaNYC (2007). Green Buildings and Energy Efficiency. Accessed 31 October 2012.
  30. RTINGS. (2012) RTINGS. Accessed 31 2012.
  31. San Francisco (2004). Climate action plan. Accessed 31 October 2012.
  32. Saunders, H. (1992). The Khazzon–Brookes postulate and neoclassical growth. The Energy Journal, 13(4), 131–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sorrel, S. (2007, October). The rebound effect: an assessment of the evidence for economy-wide energy savings from improved energy efficiency. UK Energy Research Centre. Accessed 18 February 2013.
  34. Tael, R. (2010, December 9). First decline in annual U.S. LCD sales in 2010. iSuppli: Accessed 20 December 2012.
  35. Tsao, J., Saunders, H., Creighton, J., Coltrin, M., & Simmons, J. (2010). Solid-state lighting: an energy economics perspective. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 43, 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Tsao, J., & Waide, P. (2010). The world's appetite for light: empirical data and trends spanning three centuries and six continents. Leukos, 6(4), 259–281.Google Scholar
  37. Turner, K. (2012, July). ‘Rebound’ effects from increased energy efficiency: a time to pause and reflect. Stirling Economics Discussion Paper 2012–15. Accessed 14 February 2013.
  38. U.S. Department of Energy. (2012). DSIRE. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy: Accessed 19 October 2012.
  39. U.S. Energy Information Administration. (2011). Annual Energy Review 2010 Google Scholar
  40. Wertenbroch, K., Soman, D., & Chattopadhyay, A. (2007). On the perceived value of money: the reference dependence of currency numerosity effects. Journal of Consumer Research, 34(1), 1–10.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Environmental Science and PolicyUniversity of Illinois at ChicagoChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations