Energy Efficiency

, Volume 6, Issue 1, pp 135–162 | Cite as

Energy use of US residential refrigerators and freezers: function derivation based on household and climate characteristics

  • Jeffery GreenblattEmail author
  • Asa Hopkins
  • Virginie Letschert
  • Michael Blasnik
Original Article


Field-metered energy use data for 1,467 refrigerators and 185 freezers from seven studies conducted between 1992 and 2010 were used to calculate usage adjustment factors (UAFs), defined as the ratio of measured to tested annual energy use. Multiple regressions of UAFs against several household and climate variables were then performed to obtain separate predictive functions for primary (most-used) refrigerators, secondary (second most-used) refrigerators, and freezers, and residual differences between observed and modeled UAFs were fit to log normal distributions. These UAF functions were used to project energy use in the more than 4,000 households in the 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey, a statistical representation of US homes. These energy use projections formed the basis of calculating lifecycle energy savings for more efficient refrigerators and freezers, as well as national energy and cost savings. Results were compared with previous published work by the Department of Energy, demonstrating how UAFs impact energy and cost savings. Such an approach could be further improved with additional data and adapted for other appliances in future analyses.


Refrigerator Field metering Usage adjustment factor (UAF) 



The authors wish to thank Robert Van Buskirk (Department of Energy) and Gregory Rosenquist (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory) for encouraging Dr. Greenblatt to initially pursue this analysis, to Peter Chan (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory) for performing additional NIA runs to produce the results for this paper, and to Andrew Berrisford (BC Hydro), Gregory Dahlhoff (Dahlhoff & Associates), Scott Pigg (Energy Center of Wisconsin), and John Proctor (Proctor Engineering Group) for sharing their field-metered data. We also wish to thank John Cymbalsky (Department of Energy) for sponsoring this analysis under an Appliance Standards contract with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeffery Greenblatt
    • 1
    Email author
  • Asa Hopkins
    • 1
    • 3
  • Virginie Letschert
    • 1
  • Michael Blasnik
    • 2
  1. 1.Environmental Energy Technologies DivisionLawrence Berkeley National LaboratoryBerkeleyUSA
  2. 2.Blasnik ConsultingBostonUSA
  3. 3.Vermont Department of Public ServiceBurlingtonUSA

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