Energy use of US residential refrigerators and freezers: function derivation based on household and climate characteristics
- 301 Downloads
Field-metered energy use data for 1,467 refrigerators and 185 freezers from seven studies conducted between 1992 and 2010 were used to calculate usage adjustment factors (UAFs), defined as the ratio of measured to tested annual energy use. Multiple regressions of UAFs against several household and climate variables were then performed to obtain separate predictive functions for primary (most-used) refrigerators, secondary (second most-used) refrigerators, and freezers, and residual differences between observed and modeled UAFs were fit to log normal distributions. These UAF functions were used to project energy use in the more than 4,000 households in the 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey, a statistical representation of US homes. These energy use projections formed the basis of calculating lifecycle energy savings for more efficient refrigerators and freezers, as well as national energy and cost savings. Results were compared with previous published work by the Department of Energy, demonstrating how UAFs impact energy and cost savings. Such an approach could be further improved with additional data and adapted for other appliances in future analyses.
KeywordsRefrigerator Field metering Usage adjustment factor (UAF)
The authors wish to thank Robert Van Buskirk (Department of Energy) and Gregory Rosenquist (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory) for encouraging Dr. Greenblatt to initially pursue this analysis, to Peter Chan (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory) for performing additional NIA runs to produce the results for this paper, and to Andrew Berrisford (BC Hydro), Gregory Dahlhoff (Dahlhoff & Associates), Scott Pigg (Energy Center of Wisconsin), and John Proctor (Proctor Engineering Group) for sharing their field-metered data. We also wish to thank John Cymbalsky (Department of Energy) for sponsoring this analysis under an Appliance Standards contract with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
- Blasnik, M. (2004). Measurement & verification of residential refrigerator energy use: Final Report 2003–2004 Metering Study. Prepared for NSTAR Electric & Gas, National Grid, and Northeast Utilities on behalf of Proctor Engineering Group, Michael Blasnik and Associates, and Conservation Services Group. 29 July.Google Scholar
- Dalhoff, G. K. (2000). Report on impacts of the alliant energy—IES baseload electricity efficiency pilot program. Verona: Dalhoff & Associates.Google Scholar
- DOE (2010a). Notice of proposed rulemaking, energy conservation program: Energy conservation standards for residential refrigerators, refrigerator–freezers, and freezers. Federal Register, 75 FR 59470–59518, 27 September. http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/appliance_standards/residential/pdfs/refrig_nopr_frnotice.pdf.
- DOE (2010b). Technical support document, notice of proposed rulemaking conservation standards for refrigerators, refrigerator–freezers, and freezers. Appliances & Commercial Equipment Standards, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy. http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/appliance_standards/residential/pdfs/refrig_nopr_tsd_2010-09-23.pdf.
- DOE (2010c). Residential refrigerators, refrigerator–freezers, and freezers NOPR analytic tools. Appliances & Commercial Equipment Standards, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy. http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/appliance_standards/residential/refrig_freezers_nopr_analytical_tools.html.
- DOE (2010d). Energy conservation program for consumer products: test procedures for refrigerators, refrigerator–freezers, and freezers; final rule and interim final rule. Federal Register, 75 FR 78810–78874, 16 December. http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/appliance_standards/residential/pdfs/rftp_frnotice_2010-12-21.pdf.
- DOE (2011a). Final rule, energy conservation program: energy conservation standards for residential refrigerators, refrigerator–freezers, and freezer. Federal Register, 76 FR 57516-57612, 57612, 15 September. http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/appliance_standards/pdfs/refrig_finalrule_frnotice.pdf.
- DOE (2011b). Technical support document, final rule conservation standards rulemaking for refrigerators, refrigerator–freezers, and freezers. Appliances & Commercial Equipment Standards, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy. http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/appliance_standards/pdfs/refrig_finalrule_tsd.pdf.
- EIA. (1993). Household energy consumption and expenditures 1990. Washington, DC: Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, U.S. Department of Energy. DOE/EIA-0321(90).Google Scholar
- EIA (2008). 2005 Residential energy consumption survey—detailed tables. Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), U.S. Energy Information Administration. http://www.eia.gov/emeu/recs/recs2005/hc2005_tables/detailed_tables2005.html.
- EIA (2011). RECS survey data, 2009. Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), U.S. Energy Information Administration. http://www.eia.gov/consumption/residential/data/2009/.
- Li, G. (1985). Robust regression. In D. C. Hoaglin, F. Mosteller, & J. W. Tukey (Eds.), Exploring data tables, trends, and shapes (pp. 281–340). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Meier, A. K., & Heinemeier, K. E. (1988), ASHRAE Transactions, 94, OT88-14-3.Google Scholar
- Meier, A., & Jansky, R. (1991). Field performance of residential refrigerators: a comparison with the laboratory test, LBL-31795. Berkeley: Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory.Google Scholar
- Meier, A., & Martinez, M. S. (1996). Energy use of icemaking in domestic refrigerators. Berkeley: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. LBNL-39183, UC-1600.Google Scholar
- Pigg, S., & Nevius, M. (2000). Energy and housing in Wisconsin: a study of single-family owner-occupied homes. Madison: Energy Center of Wisconsin. ECW 199-1.Google Scholar
- Pigg, S., & Price, A. (2005). Energy and rental housing: a Wisconsin characterization study. Madison: Energy Center of Wisconsin. ECW 232-1.Google Scholar
- Pratt, R. G., & Miller, J. D. (1998). The New York power authority’s energy-efficient refrigerator program for the New York City housing authority—1997 savings evaluation. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. PNNL-11990. http://www.cee1.org/eval/db_pdf/332.pdf.
- Press, W. H., Teukolsky, S. A., Vetterling, W. T., & Flannery, B. P. (2007). Numerical recipes: the art of scientific computing, 3rd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-88068-8. http://www.nr.com/bookreader_chooser.html.
- Proctor, J., & Dutt, G. (1994). Pacific gas and electric residential refrigerator field monitoring project; annual energy consumption comparison. San Rafael: Proctor Engineering Group.Google Scholar
- Stata. (2009). Stata base reference manual: release 11. College Station: StataCorp.Google Scholar
- U.S. Census Bureau (2005). American housing survey, national tables: 2005. Housing and Household Economic Statistics Division. http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/housing/ahs/ahs05/ahs05.html. Accessed 7 May 2011.
- Wikipedia (2011a). Student’s t-test. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Student’s_t-test#Slope_of_a_regression_line. Accessed 14 Apr.
- Wikipedia (2011b). Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kolmogorov-Smirnov_test. Accessed 14 Apr.
- Wikipedia (2011c). Log normal. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Log_normal. Accessed 14 Apr.
- Wilcox, S., & Marion, W. (2008). Users manual for TMY3 data. Technical report, NREL/TP-581-43156. http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy08osti/43156.pdf.