Data network equipment energy use and savings potential in buildings
- First Online:
- 335 Downloads
Network connectivity has become nearly ubiquitous, and the energy use of the equipment required for this connectivity is growing. Network equipment consists of devices that primarily switch and route Internet Protocol (IP) packets from a source to a destination, and this category specifically excludes edge devices like PCs, servers and other sources, and sinks of IP traffic. This paper presents the results of a study of network equipment energy use and includes case studies of networks in a campus, a medium commercial building, and a typical home. The total energy use of network equipment is the product of the stock of equipment in use, the power of each device, and their usage patterns. This information was gathered from market research reports, broadband market penetration studies, field metering, and interviews with network administrators and service providers. We estimate that network equipment in the USA used 18 TWh, or about 1% of building electricity, in 2008 and that consumption is expected to grow at roughly 6% per year to 23 TWh in 2012; world usage in 2008 was 51 TWh. This study shows that office building network switches and residential equipment are the two largest categories of energy use consuming 40% and 30% of the total respectively. We estimate potential energy savings for different scenarios using forecasts of equipment stock and energy use, and savings estimates range from 20% to 50% based on full market penetration of efficient technologies.
KeywordsNetwork equipment energy use Ethernet energy use IP networks Energy efficiency
- Census (1996). Current population reports: Projections of the number of households and families in the United States: 1995 to 2010. www.census.gov/prod/1/pop/p25-1129.pdf.
- Cisco (2010). Cisco product efficiency calculator. http://www.cisco.com/cdc_content_elements/flash/dataCenter/eap/.
- DOE (2009). US Department of Energy, 1.1.9 buildings share of U.S. electricity consumption. Buildings Energy Data Book, 2009. buildingsdatabook.eren.doe.gov/docs/xls_pdf/1.1.9.pdf.
- FCC (2009). High-speed services for Internet access: Status as of June 30, 2008. Industry Analysis and Technology Division, Wireline Competition Bureau, Federal Communications Commission, July 2009. www.fcc.gov/Bureaus/Common_Carrier/Reports/FCC-State_Link/IAD/hspd0608_tables.xls.
- Hoelzle, U., & Weihl, B. (2006). High-efficiency power supplies for home computers and servers. http://services.google.com/blog_resources/PSU_white_paper.pdf.
- IEEE (2010). IEEE 802.3az Energy Efficient Ethernet Task Force. grouper.ieee.org/groups/802/3/az/.
- Infineon (2009). Infineon announces world’s first gigabit PHY compliant with new Energy Efficient Ethernet guidelines; XWAY™ PHY11G reduces power consumption by 90 per cent and enables industry’s smallest footprint for gigabit applications. www.infineon.com/cms/en/corporate/press/news/releases/2009/INFWLC200908-072.html.
- OECD (2007). Broadband statistics to June 2007. www.oecd.org/document/60/0,3343,en_2649_34225_39574076_1_1_1_1,00.html.
- OECD (2008). Broadband statistics to June 2008. www.oecd.org/document/54/0,3343,en_2649_34225_39575670_1_1_1_1,00.html.
- OECD (2009a). Broadband subscribers by country, June 2009. www.oecd.org/dataoecd/22/15/39574806.xls.
- OECD (2009b). Broadband subscribers by technology, June 2009. www.oecd.org/dataoecd/11/20/39575781.xls.
- Roth, K., Goldstein, F. & Kleinman, J. (2001). Energy consumption by office and telecommunications equipment in commercial buildings. Arthur D. Little Report 72895-00, pp. 66–73.Google Scholar
- Tolly Group (2008). Nortel converged data network solution evaluation of energy consumption and projected costs for a converged LAN campus, data center and WAN. http://www.tolly.com/DocDetail.aspx?DocNumber=208298. The Tolly Group, Report No. 208298, July 2008.