Energy Efficiency

, Volume 4, Issue 1, pp 93–113 | Cite as

Technical and cost assessment of energy efficiency improvement and greenhouse gas emission reduction potentials in Thai cement industry

  • Ali Hasanbeigi
  • Christoph Menke
  • Apichit Therdyothin
Article

Abstract

The cement industry is one of the most energy-consuming industries in Thailand, with high associated carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The cement sector accounted for about 20.6 million tonnes of CO2 emissions in 2005. The fuel intensity of the Thai cement industry was about 3.11 gigajoules (GJ)/tonne cement; the electricity intensity was about 94.3 kWh/tonne cement, and the total primary energy intensity was about 4.09 GJ/tonne cement in 2005 with the clinker to cement ratio of around 82%. In this study, the potential application of 47 energy-efficiency measures is assessed for the Thai cement industry. Using a bottom-up electricity conservation supply curve model, the cost-effective electricity efficiency improvement potential for the Thai cement industry is estimated to be about 265 gigawatt hours (GWh), which accounts for 8% of total electricity use in the cement industry in 2005. Total technical electricity-saving potential is 1,697 GWh, which accounts for 51% of total electricity use in the cement industry in 2005. The CO2 emission reduction potential associated with the cost-effective electricity savings is 159 kilotonne (kt) CO2, while the total technical potential for CO2 emission reductions is 902 ktonne CO2. The fuel conservation supply curve model shows a cost-effective fuel-efficiency improvement potential of 17,214 terajoules (TJ) and a total technical fuel efficiency improvement potential equal to 21,202 TJ, accounting for 16% and 19% of the total fuel use in the cement industry in 2005, respectively. CO2 emission reduction potentials associated with cost-effective and technical fuel-saving measures are 2,229 ktonne and 2,603 ktonne, respectively. Sensitivity analyses were conducted for discount rate, electricity and fuel prices, and exchange rate that showed the significant influence of these parameters on the results. Hence, the results of the study should be interpreted with caution.

Keywords

Energy efficiency Cement industry Emission reduction Cost assessment Bottom-up model 

Notes

Acknowledgment

Authors are grateful to managers and engineers in the cement companies that participated in this study and provided us the required information and data. We also would like to thank Ms. Somthida Piyapana, the director of the Thai Cement Manufacturing Association for her kind assistance. We are grateful to Prof./Dr. Surapong Chirarattananon and Dr. Peter du Pont for their comments on this study. Special thanks to Mr. Warut Chivamavin from ENCON Lab in Thailand for his cooperation. Finally, we would like to thank Lynn Price of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Dr. Ernst Worrell of Ecofys for their valuable comments and input on this study.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ali Hasanbeigi
    • 1
  • Christoph Menke
    • 2
  • Apichit Therdyothin
    • 3
  1. 1.The Joint Graduate School of Energy and EnvironmentKing Mongkut’ s University of Technology ThonburiBangkokThailand
  2. 2.Department of Building Engineering Services, Energy Technology DivisionUniversity of Applied SciencesTrierGermany
  3. 3.The School of Energy, Environment, and MaterialKing Mongkut’s University of Technology ThonburiBangkokThailand

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