Energy Efficiency

, Volume 1, Issue 1, pp 79–104

Feedback on household electricity consumption: a tool for saving energy?


DOI: 10.1007/s12053-008-9009-7

Cite this article as:
Fischer, C. Energy Efficiency (2008) 1: 79. doi:10.1007/s12053-008-9009-7


Improved feedback on electricity consumption may provide a tool for customers to better control their consumption and ultimately save energy. This paper asks which kind of feedback is most successful. For this purpose, a psychological model is presented that illustrates how and why feedback works. Relevant features of feedback are identified that may determine its effectiveness: frequency, duration, content, breakdown, medium and way of presentation, comparisons, and combination with other instruments. The paper continues with an analysis of international experience in order to find empirical evidence for which kinds of feedback work best. In spite of considerable data restraints and research gaps, there is some indication that the most successful feedback combines the following features: it is given frequently and over a long time, provides an appliance-specific breakdown, is presented in a clear and appealing way, and uses computerized and interactive tools.


Consumers Electricity consumption Energy conservation Feedback Electricity bill Advanced metering Literature review 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Fachbereich 2 - Bauen, Energie, UmweltVerbraucherzentrale BundesverbandBerlinGermany

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