, 43:203 | Cite as

Effects of initial stage of dam-break flows on sediment transport

  • S K BiswalEmail author
  • M K Moharana
  • A K Agrawal


Experimental and numerical studies of dam-break flows over sediment bed under dry and wet downstream conditions are investigated and their effects on sediment transport and bed change on flow are illustrated. Dam-break waves are generated by suddenly lifting a gate inside the flume for three different upstream reservoir heads. The flow characteristics are detected by employing simple and economical measuring technique. The numerical model solves the two-dimensional Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations with k-ε turbulence closure using the explicit finite volume method on adaptive, non-staggered grid. The model is validated with laboratory data and is extended for simulating non-equilibrium sediment transport and bed evolution process. The volume of fluid technique is used to track the evolution of the free surface, satisfying the advection equation. The comparison study reveals that the current model is capable of defining the dam-break flow and improves the accuracy of determining morphological changes at the initial stages of the dam-break flow. A good agreement between the model solutions and the experimental data is observed.


Dam-break flow flume experiment RANS equation finite volume method sediment transport 


  1. 1.
    Stansby P K, Chegini A and Barnes T C D 1998 The initial stages of dam-break flow. J. Fluid Mech. 374: 407–424MathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lauber G and Hager W H 1998 Experiments to dambreak wave: Horizontal channel. J. Hydraul. Res. 36(3): 291–307Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Janosi I M, Jan D, Szabo K G and Tel T 2004 Turbulent drag reduction in dam-break flows. Exp. Fluids 37(2): 219–229Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Soares-Frazao S and Zech Y 2007 Experimental study of dam-break flow against an isolated obstacle. J. Hydraul. Res. 45(Supplement 1), 27–36Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Aureli F, Maranzoni A, Mignosa P and Ziveri C 2008 Dam-break flows: Acquisition of experimental data through an imaging technique and 2D numerical modelling. J. Hydraul. Eng. 134(8): 1089–1101Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Aleixo R, Soares-Frazao S and Zech Y 2011 Velocity-field measurements in a dam-break flow using a PTV Voronoi imaging technique. Exp. Fluids 50(6): 1633–1649Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ferreira R M L, Leal J G A B and Cardoso A H 2006 Conceptual model for the bedload layer of gravel bed stream based on laboratory observations. In: Proceedings of International Conference River Flow 2006, Lisbon, Portugal, 947–956Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zech Y, Soares-Frazao S, Spinewine B and Grelle N 2008 Dam-break induced sediment movement: Experimental approaches and numerical modelling. J. Hydraul. Res. 46(2): 176–190Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Leal J G A B, Ferreira R M L and Cardoso A H 2009 Maximum level and time to peak of dam-break waves on mobile horizontal bed. J. Hydraul. Eng. 135(1): 995–999Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fraccarollo L and Toro E F 1995 Experimental and numerical assessment of the shallow water model for two-dimensional dam-break type problems. J. Hydraul. Res. 33(6): 843–864Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Capart H and Young D L 1998 Formation of a jump by the dam-break wave over a granular bed. J. Fluid Mech. 372: 165–187zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Garcia-Navarro P, Fras A and Villanueva I 1999 Dam-break flow simulation: Some results for one-dimensional models of real cases. J. Hydrol. 216(3–4): 227–247Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pritchard D and Hogg A J 2002 On sediment transport under dam-break flow. J. Fluid Mech. 473: 265–274zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zhou J G, Causon D M, Mingham C G and Ingram D M 2004 Numerical prediction of dam-break flows in general geometries with complex bed topography. J. Hydraul. Eng. 130(4): 332–340Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cao Z, Pender G, Wallis S and Carling P 2004 Computational dam-break hydraulics over erodible sediment bed. J. Hydraul. Eng. 130(7): 689–703Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bradford S F and Sanders B F 2005 Performance of high-resolution, nonlevel bed, shallow-water models. J. Eng. Mech. 131(10):1073–1081Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wu W and Wang S S Y 2007 One-dimensional modeling of dam-break flow over movable beds. J. Hydraul. Eng. 133(1): 48–58Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Xia J, Lin B, Falconer R A and Wang G 2010 Modelling dam-break flows over mobile beds using a 2D coupled approach. Adv. Water Resour. 33(2): 171–183Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wu W, Marsooli R and He Z 2012 Depth-averaged two-dimensional model of unsteady flow and sediment transport due to noncohesive embankment break/breaching. J. Hydraul. Eng. 138(6): 503–516Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Evangelista S, Altinakar M S, Di Cristo C and Leopardi A 2013 Simulation of dam-break waves on movable beds using a multi-stage centered scheme. Int. J. Sediment Res. 28(3): 269–284Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Zhang S, Duan J G and Strelkoff T S 2013 Grain-scale nonequilibrium sediment-transport model for unsteady flow. J. Hydraul. Eng. 139(1): 22–36Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Capart H, Young D L and Zech Y 2001 Dam-break Induced debris flow. In: McCaffrey W D, Kneller B C and Peakall J (Eds) Particulate gravity currents, Oxford: Blackwell Science Ltd, pp. 149–156Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wu W, Wang S S Y and Jia Y 2000 Nonuniform sediment transport in alluvial rivers. J. Hydraul. Res. 38(6):427–434Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Neyshabouri A A S, Da Suva A M F and Barron R 2003 Numerical simulation of scour by a free falling jet. J. Hydraul. Res. 41(5): 533–539Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zhang R J and Xie J H 1993 Sedimentation research in China: Systematic selections. China: Water and Power PressGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Fagherazzi S and Sun T 2003 Numerical simulations of transportational cyclic steps. Comput. Geosci. 29(9):1143–1154Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ferreira R and Leal J 1998 1D mathematical modeling of the instantaneous dam-break flood wave over mobile bed: application of TVD and flux-splitting schemes. In: Proceedings of the European Concerted Action on Dam-break Modeling, Munich. 175–222Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Fraccarollo L and Armanini A 1998 A semi-analytical solution for the dam-break problem over a movable bed. In: Proceedings of the European Concerted Actionon Dam-break Modeling, Munich. 145–152Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Soares-Frazao S and Zech Y 2011 HLLC scheme with novel wave-speed estimators appropriate for two‐dimensional shallow-water flow on erodible bed. Int. J. Numer. Methods Fluids 66(8): 1019–1036MathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Capart H and Young D L 2002 Two-layer shallow water computations of torrential flows. Proc. River Flow, Balkema, Lisse, Netherlands, 2, 1003–1012Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Spinewine B and Zech Y 2007 Small-scale laboratory dam-break waves on movable beds. J. Hydraul. Res. 45(sup 1):73–86Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Emmett M and Moodie T B 2008 Dam-break flows with resistance as agents of sediment transport. Phys. Fluids 20(8): 086603-1–086603-20zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Emmett M and Moodie T B 2009 Sediment transport via dam-break flows over sloping erodible beds. Stud. Appl. Math. 123(3): 257–290MathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Simpson G and Castelltort S 2006 Coupled model of surface water flow, sediment transport and morphological evolution. Comput. Geosci. 32(10): 1600–1614Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Cao Z 2007 Comments on the paper by Guy Simpson and Sebastien Castelltort, “Coupled model of surface water flow, sediment transport and morphological evolution”, Computers & Geosciences 32 (2006) 1600–1614. Comput. Geosci. 33(7): 976–978Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Shigematsu T, Liu P L F and Oda K 2004 Numerical modeling of the initial stages of dam-break waves. J. Hydraul. Res. 42(2): 183–195Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Khayyer A and Gotoh H 2010 On particle-based simulation of a dam break over a wet bed. J. Hydraul. Res. 48(2): 238–249Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hsu H C, Torres-Freyermuth A, Hsu T J, Hwung H H and Kuo P C 2014 On dam-break wave propagation and its implication to sediment erosion. J. Hydraul. Res. 52(2): 205–218Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Lin P and Liu P L F 1998 A numerical study of breaking waves in the surf zone. J. Fluid Mech. 359: 239–264zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Torres-Freyermuth A and Hsu T J 2010 On the dynamics of wave-mud interaction: A numerical study. J. Geophys. Res. 115:C07014-1–C07014-18Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Wu W 2007 Computational river dynamics, London: CRC PressGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    van Rijn L C 1987 Mathematical modeling of morphological processes in the case of suspended sediment transport. Delft Hydraulics Communication No. 382, TU Delft, Delft University of TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Wu W and Wang S S Y 2006 Formulas for sediment porosity and settling velocity. J. Hydraul. Eng. 132(8): 858–862Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Fredsøe J and Deigaard R 1992 Mechanics of coastal sediment transport. Advanced series in ocean engineering. 3: Singapore: World ScientificGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hsu T J, Elgar S and Guza R T 2006 Wave-induced sediment transport and onshore sandbar migration. Coastal Eng. 53(10): 817–824Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Rodi W 1993 Turbulence models and their applications in hydraulics: A state-of-the-art review. 3rd Ed., NewYork: CRC PressGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringNational Institute of Technology AgartalaAgartalaIndia
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringNational Institute of Technology RourkelaRourkelaIndia

Personalised recommendations