, Volume 40, Issue 6, pp 1937–1954 | Cite as

Combustion, performance and emissions characteristics of a newly developed CRDI single cylinder diesel engine



For improving engine performance, combustion and controlling emissions from compression ignition (CI) engines, common rail direct injection (CRDI) technology offers limitless possibilities by controlling fuel injection parameters such as fuel injection pressure, start of injection (SOI) timing, rate of fuel injection and injection duration. CRDI systems available commercially are quite complex and use a large number of sensors, hardware and analytical circuits, which make them very expensive and unfeasible for cheaper single cylinder engines, typically used in agricultural sector and decentralized power sector.

This paper covers experimental investigations of a simpler version of CRDI system developed for a constant-speed, single-cylinder engine. Modifications in the cylinder head for accommodating solenoid injector, designing injector driver circuit and development of high pressure stage controls were some of the engine modification and development tasks undertaken. SOI timing is an important parameter for improving engine’s combustion characteristics. SOI timings were varied between 25° and 40° BTDC for investigating engine’s performance, emissions and combustion characteristics. Advanced fuel injections showed higher heat release rate (HRR), cylinder pressure and rate of pressure rise (RoPR) because of relatively longer ignition delay experienced. Lowest brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) was obtained for 34° CA BTDC SOI. Reduction in engine out emissions except NOx was observed for advanced fuel injection timings for this newly developed CRDI system.


CRDI system combustion characteristics start of injection heat release rate emissions combustion duration. 



Financial support from CSIR through their grant Sanction Letter No. 37(1505)/11/EMR-II dated 22 December 2011 for conducting this investigation is gratefully acknowledged and appreciated.


  1. Block B, Westphal H, Oppermann W, Hentschel W, Henning H and Kutschera I 2002 Optical detection of the combustion produced by the pre-injected fuel in a DI diesel engine, SAE Paper 2002-01-2667Google Scholar
  2. Cheng W T, Sub H J, Xie X, Chia L M, Henein N A, Schwarz E and Bryzik W 1999 Direct visualization of high pressure diesel spray and engine combustion, SAE Paper 1999-01-3496Google Scholar
  3. Desantes J M, Arregle J, Lopez J J and Garcia A 2007 A comprehensive study of diesel combustion and emissions with post-injection, SAE Paper 2007-01-0915Google Scholar
  4. Eblen E and Stumpp G 1978 Beitrag des Einspritz systems zur Verbesserung des Diesel motors, Bosch Techn. Berichte Band 6, Heft 2Google Scholar
  5. Endres H, Dumholz M and Frisse P 1994 Pre-injection: A measure to optimize the emission behavior of DI-diesel engines, SAE Paper 940674Google Scholar
  6. Henein N A, Lai M C, Singh I, Wang D and Liu L 2001 Emissions trade off and combustion characteristics of a high speed direct injection diesel engine, SAE Paper 2001-01-0197Google Scholar
  7. Ishiwata H, Ohishi T, Ryuzaki K, Unoki K and Kitahara N 1994 A feasibility study of pilot injection in TICS, SAE Paper 940195Google Scholar
  8. Kohketsu S, Mori K, Kato T and Sakai K 1994 Technology for low emission, combustion noise and fuel consumption on diesel engine, SAE Paper 940672Google Scholar
  9. Kong S C and Karra P K 2008 Diesel emission characteristics using high injection pressure with converging nozzles in a medium-duty engine, SAE Paper 2008-01-1085Google Scholar
  10. Koyanagi K, Oing H, Renner G and Maly R 1999 Optimizing common rail-injection by optical diagnostics in a transparent production type diesel engine, SAE Paper 1999-01-3646Google Scholar
  11. Miyaki M, Fujisawa H, Masuda A and Yamamota Y 1991 Development of new electronically controlled fuel injection system ECD-U2 for diesel engines, SAE Paper 910251Google Scholar
  12. Nakakita K, Kondoh T, Ohsawa K, Takahashi T and Watanabe S 1992 Optimization of pilot injection pattern and its effect on diesel combustion with high-pressure injection. JSME Int. J. Series B – Fluids Thermal Eng. 37: 966–973CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Riaud J C and Lavoisier F 2002 Optimizing the multiple injection settings on an HSDI diesel engine. In: THIESEL conference on Thermo and Fluid Dynamic Processes in Diesel EnginesGoogle Scholar
  14. Rinolf R, Imarisio R and Buratti R 1995 The potential of a new common rail diesel fuel injection system for the next generation of DI diesel engines, 16 Internationales Wiener Motoren symposium, VDI- Verlag Reihe 12 Nr. 239Google Scholar
  15. Robert Bosch 2006 GmbH, Diesel-engine management. John Wiley and Sons Inc., UK, 72 PagesGoogle Scholar
  16. Schubiger R, Bertola A and Boulouchos K 2001 Influence of EGR on combustion and exhaust emissions of heavy duty DI-diesel engines equipped with common-rail injection systems, SAE Paper 2001-01-3497Google Scholar
  17. Shimada T, Shoji T and Takeda Y 1989 The effect of fuel injection pressure on diesel engine performance, SAE Paper 891919Google Scholar
  18. Shundoh S, Komori M, Tsujimura K and Kobayashi S 1992 NOx reduction from diesel combustion using pilot injection with high pressure fuel injection, SAE Paper 920461Google Scholar
  19. Thirouard M, Pacaud P, Ambrazas D, Chmielarczyk V, Mendez S, Garsi C, Lavoisier F and Barbeau 2009 Potential to improve specific power using very high injection pressure in HSDI Diesel engines, SAE Paper 2009-01-1524Google Scholar
  20. Tow T, Pierpont D A and Reitz R D 1994 Reducing particulates and NOx emissions by using multiple injections in a heavy duty DI diesel engine, SAE Paper 940897Google Scholar
  21. Tsurushima T, Zhang L and Ishi Y 1999 A study of unburnt hydrocarbon emissions in small di diesel engine, SAE Paper 1999-01-0512Google Scholar
  22. Uchida N, Shimokawa K, Kudo Y and Smimoda M 1998 Combustion optimization by means of common rail injection system for heavy duty diesel engines, SAE Paper 982679Google Scholar
  23. Zhang L 1999 A study of pilot injection in a DI diesel engine, SAE Paper 1999-01-3493Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 2015

Authors and Affiliations

    • 1
    Email author
    • 1
    • 1
  1. 1.Engine Research Laboratory, Department of Mechanical EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology KanpurKanpurIndia

Personalised recommendations