Sadhana

, Volume 38, Issue 3, pp 461–476 | Cite as

Biomass-based gasifiers for internal combustion (IC) engines—A review

Article

Abstract

The world is facing severe problems of energy crisis and environmental problem. This situation makes people to focus their attention on sustainable energy resources for their survival. Biomass is recognized to be the major potential source for energy production. There are ranges of biomass utilization technologies that produce useful energy from biomass. Gasification is one of the important techniques out of direct combustion, anaerobic digestion – Biogas, ethanol production. Gasification enables conversion of these materials into combustible gas (producer gas), mechanical and electrical power, synthetic fuels, and chemical. The gasification of biomass into useful fuel enhances its potential as a renewable energy resource. This paper gives a comprehensive review of the techniques used for utilizing biomass, experimental investigation on biomass fuels, characterization, merits, demerits and challenges faced by biomass fuels.

Keywords

Biomass gasification producer gas 

References

  1. Banapurmath N R and Tewari P G 2009 Comparative performance studies of a 4-stroke CI engine operated on dual fuel mode with producer gas and Honge oil and its methyl ester (HOME) with and without carburettor. Renewable Energy 34: 1009–1015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bridgewater A V 1995 The technical and economic feasibility of biomass gasification for power generation. Fuel 74: 631–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bridgewater A V 2003 Renewable fuels and chemicals by thermal processing of biomass. Chemical Engineering Journal 91: 87–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen Hu, Wang Jianxin, Shuai Shijin and Chen Wenmiao 2008 Study of oxygenated biomass fuel blends on a diesel engine. Fuel 87: 3462–3468Google Scholar
  5. Ciolkosz Daniel 2010 Characteristics of Biomass as a Heating Fuel. Penn State College of Agricultural Sciences research, Pennsylvania State UniversityGoogle Scholar
  6. Dogru M, Howarth C R, Akay G, Keskinler B and Malik A A 2002 Gasification of hazelnut shells in a downdraft gasifier. Energy 27: 415–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Drift A Vander, Vandoorn J and Vermeulen J W 2001 Ten residual biomass fuels for circulating fluidized bed gasification. Biomass and Bio-Energy 20: 45–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hanaoka Toshiaki, Inoue Seiichi, Uno Seiji, Ogi Tomoko and Minowa Tomoaki 2005 Effect of woody biomass components on air-steam gasification. Biomass and BioEnergy 28(1): 69–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hindsgaul C, Schramm J, Gratz L, Henriksen U and Bentzen J D 2000 Physical and chemical characterization of particles in producer gas from wood chips. Bioresource Technology 73: 147–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jayah T H, Aye L, Fuller R J and Stewart D F 2003 Computer simulation of a downdraft wood gasifier for tea drying. Biomass and Bioenergy 25: 459–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Jorapur Rajeev and Rajvanshi Anil K 1997 Sugarcane Leaf – Bagasse Gasifiers for Industrial heating applications. Biomass and Bio-Energy 13(3): 141–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Khan B H 2009 Non conventional energy resource. Tata McGraw Hill Publishers, 2nd Ed., IndiaGoogle Scholar
  13. Klass D L 1998 Biomass for renewable energy, Fuel and Chemicals. USA, Academic Press An imprint of ElsevierGoogle Scholar
  14. Kohli S and Ravi M R 2003 Biomass gasification for rural electrification: prospects and challenges. SESI Journal 13(1–2): 83–101Google Scholar
  15. Krishna K S and Kumar K Ajit 1994 A study for the utilization of coffee husk in diesel engine by gasification. Proceedings of Biomass Gasification Technology, India, 55–58Google Scholar
  16. Livingston W R 2007 Report on Biomass ash characteristics and behaviour in combustion, gasification and pyrolysis systems. United Kingdom: Doosan Babcock Energy LimitedGoogle Scholar
  17. Martin V, Vikoria M and Gunnar S 1997 Combined production of power and alternative fuels in connection with pulp mills. Society of Automotive Engineers 01: 247Google Scholar
  18. McKendry P 2002 Energy production from biomass (part 1): overview of biomass. Bioresource Technology 83: 37–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. McKendry P 2002 Energy production from biomass (part 3): gasification technologies. Bioresource Technology 83: 55–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mishra P, Singh P and Baredar P 2010 Impact of moisture level in atmosphere on Biomass Gasification: A Bio energy for Sustainable Development. International Journal of Environmental Sciences 1(4)Google Scholar
  21. Parikh P P, Bhave A G, Kapse D K and Kantha Shashi 1989 Study of thermal and emission performance of small gasifier – dual fuel engine systems. Biomass 19: 75–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ptasinski K J, Prins M J and Pierik A 2007 Exergetic evaluation of biomass gasification. Energy 32: 568–574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Rajvanshi A K and Joshi M S 1989 Development and operational experience with topless wood gasifier running a 3.75 KW diesel engine pump set. Biomass 49: 47–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ramadhas A S, Jayaraj S and Muraleedharan C 2006 Power generating using coir pith and wood derived producer gas in diesel engines. Fuel Processing Technology 87: 849–853CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Rathore N S and Panwar N L 2009 Potential of surplus biomass gasifier based power generation: A case study of an Indian state Rajasthan. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Change 14: 711–720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Rathore N S, Panwar N L and Kothari S 2009 Biomass production and utilization technology. Udaipur, Rajasthan (India), Himanshu PublicationGoogle Scholar
  27. Sheng G X 1989 Biomass gasifiers: from waste to energy production. Biomass 20: 3–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Sheth Pratik N and Babu B V 2009 Experimental studies on producer gas generation from wood waste in a downdraft biomass gasifier. Bioresource Technology 100: 3127–3133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Singh R N, Singh S P and Pathak B S 2005 Emission characteristics of a naturally aspirated multi-cylinder diesel engine with multi fuel. Int. Energy J. 5(2): 69–80Google Scholar
  30. Singh R N, Singh S P and Pathak B S 2007 Investigations on operation of CI engine using producer gas and rice bran oil in mixed fuel mode. Renewable Energy 32: 1565–1580CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sivakumar K and Krishna Mohan N 2010 Performance analysis of downdraft gasifier for agriwaste biomass materials. Indian Journal of Science and Technology 3(1): 58–61Google Scholar
  32. Sonaton G, Tuhin K D and Tushar J 2004 Sustainability of decentralized wood fuel-based power plant: an experience in India. Energy 29: 155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sridhar G, Paul P J and Mukunda H S 2001 Biomass derived producer gas as a reciprocating engine fuel an experimental analysis. Biomass and Bio-energy 21: 61–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Tewari P G 1999 Studies on a producer gas operated spark ignition engine converted from a single cylinder diesel engine, Ph.D. thesis, IIT, Delhi, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  35. Tinaut Francisco V, Melgar Andrés, Pérez Juan F and Horrillo Alfonso 2008 Effect of biomass particle size and air superficial velocity on the gasification process in a downdraft fixed bed gasifier-An experimental and modelling study. Fuel Processing Technology 89: 1076–1089Google Scholar
  36. Tripathi Arun K, Iyer P V R, Kandpal Tara Chandra and Singh K K 1998 Assessment of availability and costs of some agricultural residues used as feed stocks for Biomass gasification and briquetting in India. Energy Conversion Mgmt., 39(15): 1611–1618Google Scholar
  37. Uma R, Kandpal T C and Kishore V V N 2004 Emission characteristics of an electricity generation system in diesel alone and dual fuel modes. Biomass and Bio energy 27: 195–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Vyarawalla F, Parikh P P, Dak H C and Jain B C 1984 Utilization of biomass for motive Power generation – Gasifer Engine System. Biomass 5: 227–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Vyas D K and Singh R N 2007 Feasibility study of Jatropha seed husk as an open core gasifier feedstock. Renewable Energy 32: 512–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Warneck Ragnar 2000 Gasification of biomass: comparison of fixed bed and fluidized bed gasifier. Biomass and Bio-Energy 18: 489–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Warneck Ragnar 2002 Gasification of biomass: comparison of fixed bed and fluidized bed gasifier. Biomass and Bio-energy 18: 489–497Google Scholar
  42. Zainal Z A, Rifau Ali, Quadir G A and Seetharamu K N 2002 Experimental investigation of a down draft biomass gasifier. Biomass and Bio-Energy 23: 283–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringThapar UniversityPatialaIndia

Personalised recommendations