Sadhana

, Volume 37, Issue 2, pp 299–318 | Cite as

Punjabi to UNL enconversion system

Article

Abstract

This paper reports the work for the EnConversion of input Punjabi sentences to an interlingua representation called Universal Networking Language (UNL). The UNL system consists of two main components, namely, EnConverter (used for converting the text from a source language to UNL) and DeConverter (used for converting the text from UNL to a target language). This paper discusses the framework for designing the EnConverter for Punjabi language with a special focus on generation of UNL attributes and relations from Punjabi source text. It also describes the working of Punjabi Shallow Parser used for the processing of the input sentence, which performs the tasks of Tokenizer, Morph-analyzer, Part-of-Speech Tagger and Chunker. This paper also considers the seven phases used in the process of EnConversion of input Punjabi text to UNL representation. The paper highlights the EnConversion analysis rules used for the EnConverter and indicates its usage in the generation of UNL expressions. This paper also covers the results of implementation of Punjabi EnConverter and its evaluation on sample UNL sentences available at Spanish Language Server. The accuracy of the developed system has also been presented in this paper.

Keywords

DeConverter EnConverter machine translation shallow parser Universal Networking Language 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adly N, Alansary S 2009 Evaluation of Arabic machine translation system based on the Universal Networking Language. Natural Language Processing and Information Systems, Lect. Notes in Comp. Sci. (LNCS) 5723:243–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alansary S, Nagi M, Adly N 2007 A Semantic-based approach for multilingual translation of massive documents. Proc. 7th Int. Symposium on Natural Language Processing, Chonburi, Thailand, 317–323Google Scholar
  3. Ali M 2002 Transliteration Tables. Proc. 7th issue of Technology Development for Indian Languages (TDIL) News Letter: 22–23Google Scholar
  4. Ali Y, Das J K, Abdullah S M, Nurannabi A M 2008 Morphological analysis of Bangla words for Universal Networking Language. Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. on Digital Information Management, London, England, 532–537Google Scholar
  5. Anthes G 2010 Automated translation of Indian languages. Comm. ACM 53(1):24–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bharati A, Sangal R, Sharma D 2007 SSF: Shakti Standard Format Guide. Language Technologies Research Centre, International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad, India: 1–25Google Scholar
  7. Bhatia P, Sharma R K 2009 Role of Punjabi morphology in designing Punjabi-UNL EnConverter. Proc. Int. Conf. on Advances in Computing, Communication and Control, Mumbai, India, 562–566Google Scholar
  8. Bhattacharyya P 2001a Multilingual information processing through Universal Networking Language. Indo UK Workshop on Language Engineering for South Asian Languages, Mumbai, India, 1–10Google Scholar
  9. Bhattacharyya P 2001b Knowledge extraction from Hindi text. J. Inst. Electron. Telecommun. Eng. 18(4):1–12Google Scholar
  10. Blanc E 2005 About and around the French EnConverter and the French DeConverter. Universal Network Language: Advances in Theory and Applications, J Cardeñosa, A Gelbukh, E Tovar, Ed(s) México, Research on Computing Science, 157–166Google Scholar
  11. Boguslavsky I M, Iomdin L, Sizov V G 2005 Interactive EnConversion by means of the ETAP-3 system. Universal Network Language: Advances in Theory and Applications, J Cardeñosa, A Gelbukh, E Tovar, Ed(s) México, Research on Computing Science, 230–240Google Scholar
  12. Dave S, Parikh J, Bhattacharyya P 2001 Interlingua based English Hindi machine translation and language divergence. J. Mach. Trans. (JMT) 16(4):251–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dey K, Bhattacharyya P 2003 Universal networking language based analysis and generation of Bengali case structure constructs. Proc. Int. Conf. on the Convergence of Knowledge, Culture, Language and Information Technologies, Egypt, 1–6Google Scholar
  14. Dhanabalan T, Saravanan K, Geetha T V 2002 Tamil to UNL EnConverter. Proc. Int. Conf. on Universal Knowledge and Language, Goa, India, 1–16Google Scholar
  15. Giri L 2000 Semantic Net like knowledge structure generation from natural languages. M. Tech. Thesis, IIT Mumbai, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  16. Goyal V, Lehal G S 2009 Evaluation of Hindi to Punjabi machine translation system. Int. J. Comput. Sci. 4(1):36–39Google Scholar
  17. Goyal V, Lehal G S 2010 Web based Hindi to Punjabi machine translation system. J. Emer. Tech. in Web Intel. 2(2):148–151Google Scholar
  18. Jain M, Damani O P 2009 English to UNL (Interlingua) EnConversion. Proc. 2nd Conference on Language and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan: 1–8Google Scholar
  19. Josan G S, Lehal G S 2008 A Punjabi to Hindi machine translation system. Proc. Coling: Companion volume: Posters and Demonstrations, Manchester, UK, 149–152Google Scholar
  20. Lafourcade M 2005 Semantic analysis through ant algorithms, conceptual vectors and fuzzy UNL graphs. Universal Network Language: Advances in Theory and Applications, J Cardeñosa, A Gelbukh, E Tovar, Ed(s) México, Research on Computing Science, 125–137Google Scholar
  21. Martins R, Hasegawa R, Graças M and Nunes V 2003 HERMETO: A NL-UNL EnConverting Environment. Proc. Int. Conf. on the Convergence of Knowledge, Culture, Language and Information Technologies, Alexandria, Egypt, 1–4Google Scholar
  22. Mohanty R, Dutta A, Bhattacharyya P 2005 Semantically relatable sets: building blocks for representing semantics. Proc. 10th Machine Translation Summit, Phuket, 1–8Google Scholar
  23. Munpyo H, Oliver S 1999 Overcoming the language barriers in the web: The UNL-approach. GLDV, Deutschland, 253–262Google Scholar
  24. Nguyen P T, Ishizuka M 2006 A statistical approach for Universal Networking Language-based relation extraction. Proc. Int. Conf. on Research, Innovation and Vision for the Future, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 153–160Google Scholar
  25. Singh S, Dalal M, Vachani V, Bhattacharyya P, Damani O P 2007 Hindi generation from interlingua. Proc. Machine Translation Summit, Copenhagen, 1–8Google Scholar
  26. Uchida H 1987 ATLAS: Fujitsu machine translation system. Proc. Machine Translation Summit, Japan, 129–134Google Scholar
  27. Uchida H 2005 Universal Networking Language (UNL): Specifications version 2005, UNDL FoundationGoogle Scholar
  28. Uchida H, Zhu M 1993 Interlingua for multilingual machine translation. Proc. 4th Machine Translation Summit, Japan, 157–169Google Scholar
  29. Uchida H, Zhu M 2001 The Universal Networking Language beyond machine translation. Proc. Int. Symposium on Language in Cyberspace, Seoul, Korea, 1–15Google Scholar
  30. Uchida H, Zhu M 2003 Universal Parser. UNL Center UNDL FoundationGoogle Scholar
  31. Uchida H, Zhu M, Senta T D 1999 The UNL, A Gift for a Millennium. Tokyo, Japan, Institute of Advanced Studies, The United Nations University: 1–62Google Scholar
  32. Universal Networking Language (UNL) Center 2000 EnConverter Specifications, UNDL Foundation: 1–33Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer Science and EngineeringThapar UniversityPatialaIndia
  2. 2.School of Mathematics and Computer ApplicationsThapar UniversityPatialaIndia

Personalised recommendations