, Volume 17, Issue 3, pp 291–294 | Cite as

Method for the drawing of Newman projections: Understanding Newman projections with the help of hands



The interconversion between the perspective formulae and Newman projections is illustrated here. The method describes how students can look at their own hands as models for the visualization and interconversion. The procedure is also applicable for drawing Newman projections of chair conformations.


Organic chemistry stereochemistry conformational analysis hands-on learning/manipulatives Newman projections 


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Suggested Reading

  1. [1] (a)
    S R Hussaini, Interconversion of Fischer and Zig-Zag Projections: Learning Stereochemistry with the Help of Hands, Resonance, Vol.15, No.4, pp.351–354, 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    P S Beauchamp, Absolutely Simple Stereochemsitry, J. Chem. Educ. Vol.61, No.8, pp.666–667, 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    N S Barta, J R Stille, Grasping the Concepts of Stereochemistry, J. Chem. Educ. Vol.71, No.1, pp.20–23, 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    E Siloac, Bird-in-the-Hand Method for Determination of Absolute Configuration on Fischer Projections. J. Chem. Educ. Vol.76, No.6, pp.798–799, 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    M S Newman, A Notation for the study of certain stereochemical problems. J. Chem. Educ. Vol. 32, No.7, pp.344–347, 1955.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    J M Hornback, Organic Chemistry. 2nd ed.; Thomson Brooks/Cole: Belmont, p.187, 2006.Google Scholar
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    P Y Bruice, Organic Chemistry. 4th ed.; Prentice Hall: Upper Saddle River, pp.88–89, 2004. For the defination of perspective formula see ref. 3(b) and IUPAC. Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the “Gold Book”). Compiled by AD McNaught and A Wilkinson. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, 1997. XML on-line corrected version: (2006) created by M Nic, J Jirat, B Kosata; updates compiled by A Jenkins. ISBN0-9678550-9-8. doi:10.1351/goldbook.Google Scholar
  8. [4]
    P Vollhardt and N Schore, Organic Chemistry: Structure and Function. 6th ed; WH Freeman and Company: New York, p.39, 2011. Solid-block and hashed-block lines also represent bonds in 3-D. For an excellent and entertaining discussion on block and wedged lines and the confusion about their use in literature, see P Wyatt, P and S Warren, Organic Synthesis: Strategy and Control. John Wiley & Sons Ltd., West Sussex, pp.376–378, 2007.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemistry and BiochemistryThe University of TulsaTulsaUSA

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