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Exposure to Lead (Pb) Induced Changes in the Metabolite Content, Antioxidant Activity and Growth of Jatropha curcas (L.)

  • Amal A. A. MohamedEmail author
  • Mahmoud H.O. Dardiry
  • Abdul Samad
  • Eman Abdelrady
Article
  • 92 Downloads

Abstract

Lead (Pb) is a rapidly increasing heavy metal due to different human activities. It is highly toxic to plants, and its toxicity can impair various morphological, physiological and biochemical functions in plants. In the present study, an experiment was designed to investigate the response mechanisms to counteract Pb in the seedlings of Jatropha curcas. For this purpose, Pb accumulation, metabolite contents, antioxidant activity and accumulation of antioxidants such as phenolics and flavonoids were evaluated. The transcription levels of two genes, metallothioneins (JcMT2a) and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (JcPAL), involved in the metal detoxification mechanism were also analyzed. The seedlings of J. curcas were hydroponically treated with different doses of Pb (0, 0.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/L). With increasing Pb dose in the nutrient solution, its accumulation was in the following pattern: roots> stems> leaves. The seedlings showed higher tolerance index (TI) in the highest Pb concentration. The dry weights of roots, stems and leaves, and the total content of proteins were significantly decreased with increasing Pb concentration. However, the photosynthetic pigments, total phenolic and flavonoid compounds were increased in response to elevated Pb concentrations. This was associated with increasing of total antioxidant capacity and radical scavenging activity. Relative transcription of JcMT2a and JcPAL showed distinct pattern in roots and leaves. Integral mechanism for Pb stress tolerance was likely accomplished by activation of antioxidant defense system which was evidenced by up regulation of JcPAL. Our study provides biochemical and genetic basis of Pb-induced defense mechanisms for metal detoxification in J. curcas.

Keywords

Jatropha curcas Pollution Lead Phytoremediation Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase Metallothionein 

Abbreviations

AA

Ascorbic acid

BAF-L

bioaccumulation factor in leaves

BAF-R

bioaccumulation factor in root

BAF-S

bioaccumulation factor in stem

Chl a

chlorophyll a

Chl b

chlorophyll b

DW-L

dry weight of leaves

DW-R

dry weight of roots

DW-S

dry weight of stems

Jcmt2a-L

metallothionine of J. curcas in leaves

Jcmt2a-R

metallothionine of J. curas in root

JcPAL-L

Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase of J. curcas in leaves

JcPAL-R

Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase of J. curcas in root

TAC

total antioxidant capacity

Tf

total flavenoids

TI

tolerance index

TP

total proteins

TPh

total phenolics

TrF-R:S

translocation factor (root to stem)

TrF-S:L

translocation factor (stem to leaves)

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was conducted as part of a research project concerning plant-based bioremediation. MD appreciates TEMPUS for his JM scholarship to do part of this study at BOKU, Vienne.

Supplementary material

12042_2019_9244_MOESM1_ESM.docx (564 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 563 kb)
12042_2019_9244_MOESM2_ESM.xlsx (158 kb)
ESM 2 (XLSX 158 kb)

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Botany Department, Faculty of ScienceAswan UniversityAswanEgypt
  2. 2.Egyptian Environmental Affairs AgencyAswanEgypt
  3. 3.AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbHTullnAustria
  4. 4.Chemistry Department, Faculty of ScienceAswan UniversityAswanEgypt

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