Establishing gene Amelogenin as sex-specific marker in yak by genomic approach
Yak, an economically important bovine species considered as lifeline of the Himalaya. Indeed, this gigantic bovine is neglected because of the scientific intervention for its conservation as well as research documentation for a long time. Amelogenin is an essential protein for tooth enamel which eutherian mammals contain two copies in both X and Y chromosome each. In bovine, the deletion of a fragment of the nucleotide sequence in Y chromosome copy of exon 6 made Amelogenin an excellent sex-specific marker. Thus, an attempt was made to use the gene as an advanced molecular marker of sexing of the yak to improve breeding strategies and reproduction. The present study confirmed that the polymerase chain reaction amplification of the Amelogenin gene with a unique primer is useful in sex identification of the yak. The test is further refined with qPCR validation by quantifying the DNA copy number of the Amelogenin gene in male and female. We observed a high level of sequence polymorphisms of AMELX and AMELY in yak considered as novel identification. These tests can be further extended into several other specialized fields including forensics, meat production and processing, and quality control.
Keywordsyak Y-chromosome AMELX gene AMELY gene marker sex determination
The authors are thankful to the Director, ICAR-NRCY for granting permission to carry out this project. The study was supported by ICAR-NRC on Yak Institutional Project Grant 2013–2015.
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