Paleoproterozoic (\(\sim\)1.88–1.89 Ga) ultramafic–mafic sills, Cuddapah basin, India—revisited: Implications for interaction between mantle plume and metasomatized subcontinental lithospheric mantle

  • Amiya K Samal
  • Rajesh K SrivastavaEmail author
  • Gulab C Gautam


A number of mafic–ultramafic sills, which are supposed to be part of the widespread ~1.88–1.89 Ga Hampi–Bastanar Large Igneous Province of the Indian shield, are reported to intrude into sedimentary/meta-sedimentary rocks of the Proterozoic Cuddapah basin. Mineral chemistry of chrome-spinel, olivine and pyroxene from the cumulate ultramafic rocks of the Pulivendla sills, emplaced at the base of Tadpatri Formation of the Cuddpaha basin, is presented for better understanding on their nature and genesis. The intermediate Cr#, low Mg#, high Fe3+# and Ti (apfu) coupled with relatively low Al (apfu) content of studied spinel indicate their Alaskan-type nature. Moreover, the Ca-rich clinopyroxene together with classic variations of Al2O3, TiO2 and SiO2 follow the trend of arc type of intrusions. The calculated Al2O3 content of parental melt of the studied rocks also suggests arc-type characteristics. Whole-rock geochemistry show fractionated chondrite-normalized REE patterns, higher Ba/Nb and low Nb/La that suggest contribution from an enriched mantle source, whereas higher Th/Yb and negative Ta–Nb–Ti anomaly on the primitive mantle-normalized multi-element spidergrams emphasize the involvement of a subducted component in the lithospheric mantle source. Although, the mineral chemistry and geochemistry is akin to Alaskan-type intrusion, lack of concentric zoning of lithologies (olivine-rich ultramafic rocks in centre surrounded by mafic rocks), rarity of primary hornblende and abundance of orthopyroxene contradict it to be an Alaskan-type intrusion. It is suggested that the mantle source region of the Pulivendla ultramafic–mafic rocks was modified by a fluid-induced metasomatism during an ancient subduction event. Further, Al-in-olivine thermometry suggests crystallization temperature between 1410° and 1484°C, which is 260°C higher than the average temperature of MORB. Similarly, the estimated mantle potential temperature is also significantly higher (>1600°C) than the different secular cooling models of the earth at ~1.88–1.89 Ga and consistent with the thermal regime of a mantle plume. The existence of mantle plume during 1.88–1.90 Ga, which has played an important role in the genesis of mafic–ultramafic sills of the Cuddapah basin, is also well supported by a radiating mafic dyke swarm, domal uplift and magmatic underplating.


Alaskan-type rock Al-in-olivine thermometry subduction SCLM mantle plume 



RKS is thankful to the DST-SERB, New Delhi for financial support (IR/S4/ESF-18/2011), which made this study possible. Authors thank Dinesh Pandit for his help during EPMA analyses. The Head of the Department of Geology, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, is thankfully acknowledged for extending all necessary facilities developed with DST-PURSE grant (Scheme 5050) and UGC-CAS-II grant (Scheme 5055) during this work. Authors thank the two anonymous reviewers for their constructive and insightful comments that significantly improved the MS.


  1. Abbott D, Burgess L, Longhi J and Smith WHF 1994 An empirical thermal history of the Earth’s upper mantle; J. Geophys. Res. 99 13,835–13,850.Google Scholar
  2. Anand M, Gibson S A, Subbarao K V, Kelley S P and Dickin A P 2003 Early Proterozoic melt generation processes beneath the intra-cratonic Cuddapah Basin, southern India; J. Petrol. 44 2139–2171.Google Scholar
  3. Arai S 1994 Characterization of spinel peridotites by olivine–spinel compositional relationships: Review and interpretation; Chem. Geol. 111 191–204.Google Scholar
  4. Barnes S J and Röeder P L 2001 The range of spinel compositions in terrestrial mafic and ultramafic rocks; J. Petrol. 42 2279–2302.Google Scholar
  5. Beard J S 1986 Characteristic mineralogy of arc-related cumulate gabbros, implications for the tectonic setting of gabbroic plutons and for andesite genesis; Geology 14 848–851.Google Scholar
  6. Belica M E, Piispa E J, Meert J G, Pesonen L J, Plado J, Pandit M K, Kamenov G D and Celestino M 2014 Paleoroterozoic mafic dyke swarms from the Dharwar craton: Paleomagnetic poles for India from 2.37 to 1.88 Ga and rethinking the Columbia supercontinent; Precamb. Res. 244 100–122.Google Scholar
  7. Bijwaard H and Spakman W 1999 Tomographic evidence for a narrow whole mantle plume below Iceland; Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 166 121–126.Google Scholar
  8. Blades M L, Foden J, Collins A S, Alemu T and Woldetinsae G 2019 The origin of the ultramafic rocks of the Tulu Dimtu Belt, western Ethiopia—do they represent remnants of the Mozambique Ocean? Geol. Mag. 156 62–82.Google Scholar
  9. Burns L E 1985 The border ranges ultramafic and mafic complex, south-central Alaska, cumulate fractionates of island-arc volcanic; Can. J. Earth Sci. 22 1020–1038.Google Scholar
  10. Campbell I H 2005 Large igneous provinces and the mantle plume hypothesis; Elements 1 265–269.Google Scholar
  11. Campbell I H, Griffiths R W and Hill R I 1989 Melting in an Archaean mantle plume, heads it’s basalts, tails it’s komatiites; Nature 339 697.Google Scholar
  12. Cao Q, Van Der Hilst R D, De Hoop M V and Shim S H 2011 Seismic imaging of transition zone discontinuities suggests hot mantle west of Hawaii; Science 332 1068–1071.Google Scholar
  13. Chakraborty K, Mukhopadhyay P K and Pankaj P 2016 Magmatism in western Cuddapahs: The mafic sills and lava flows of Vempalle and Tadpatri formations; J. Geol. Soc. India 87 631–660.Google Scholar
  14. Chakraborty P P, Dey S and Mohanty S P 2010 Proterozoic platform sequences of peninsular India, implications towards basin evolution and supercontinent assembly; J. Asian. Earth Sci. 39 589–607.Google Scholar
  15. Chandrakala K, Pandey O P, Mall D M and Sarkar D 2010 Seismic signatures of a proterozoic thermal plume below southwestern part of the Cuddapah Basin, Dharwar craton; J. Geol. Soc. India 76 565–572.Google Scholar
  16. Chatterjee N and Bhattacharji S 2001 Petrology, geochemistry and tectonic settings of the mafic dikes and sills associated with the evolution of the Proterozoic Cuddapah Basin of south India; Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. (Earth Planet. Sci.) 110 433–453.Google Scholar
  17. Ciborowski T J R, Minifie M J, Kerr A C, Ernst R E, Baragar B and Millar I L 2017 A mantle plume origin for the Palaeoproterozoic Circum-Superior Large Igneous Province; Precamb. Res. 294 189–213.Google Scholar
  18. Clark T 1980 Petrology of the Turnagain ultramafic complex, northwestern British Colombia; Can. J. Earth Sci. 17 744–757.Google Scholar
  19. Class C, Miller D M, Goldstein S L and Langmuir C H 2000 Distinguishing melt and fluid subduction components in Umnak volcanics, Aleutian Arc; Geochem. Geophys. 1 1999GC000010.Google Scholar
  20. Coogan L A, Saunders A D and Wilson R N 2014 Aluminum-in-olivine thermometry of primitive basalts, evidence of an anomalously hot mantle source for large igneous provinces; Chem. Geol. 368 1–10.Google Scholar
  21. Cox K G 1993 Continental magmatic underplating; Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. A 342(1663) 155–166Google Scholar
  22. Davies G F 2009 Effect of plate bending on the Urey ratio and the thermal evolution of the mantle; Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 287 513–518.Google Scholar
  23. Debari S M and Coleman R G 1989 Examination of the deep levels of an island arc: Evidence from the Tonsina ultramafic–mafic assemblage, Tonsina, Alaska; J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth 94 4373–4391.Google Scholar
  24. Dick H J B 1989 Abyssal peridotites, very slow spreading ridges and ocean ridge magmatism; In: Magmatism in the Ocean Basins (eds) Saunders A D and Norry M J, Geol. Soc. London, Spec. Publ. 42 71–105.Google Scholar
  25. Dick H J B and Bullen T 1984 Chromian spinel as a petrogenetic indicator in abyssal and alpine type peridotites and spatially associated lavas; Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 86 54–76.Google Scholar
  26. Elliott T, Plank T, Zindler A, White W and Bourdon B 1997 Element transport from slab to volcanic front at the Mariana arc; J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth 102 14991–15019.Google Scholar
  27. Ernst RE 2014 Large Igneous Provinces, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 653p.Google Scholar
  28. Ernst R E and Buchan K L 2003 Recognizing mantle plumes in the geological record; Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 31 469–523.Google Scholar
  29. Ernst R E and Srivastava R K 2008 India’s place in the Proterozoic world, Constraints from the large igneous province (LIP) record; In: Indian Dykes, Geochemistry, Geophysics and Geochronology (eds) Srivastava R K, Sivaji C, Chalapathi Rao N V, Narosa Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, pp. 41–56.Google Scholar
  30. Falloon T F, Danyushevsky L V, Ariskin A, Green D H and Ford C E 2007a The application of olivine-liquid geothermometry to infer crystallization temperatures of parental liquids, implications for the temperature of MORB magmas; Chem. Geol. 241 207–233.Google Scholar
  31. Falloon T J, Green D H and Danyushevsky L V 2007b Crystallization temperatures of tholeiitic parental liquids, implications for the existence of thermally driven mantle plumes; In: Plates, Plumes and Planetary Processes (eds) Foulger G R and Jurdy D M, Geol. Soc. Am. Spec. Paper 430 235–260.Google Scholar
  32. Farahat E S and Helmy H M 2006 Abu Hamamid Neoproterozoic Alaskan-type complex, south Eastern Desert, Egypt; J. Afr. Earth Sci. 45 187–197.Google Scholar
  33. Farnetani C G and Richards M A 1994 Numerical investigations of the mantle plume initiation model for flood basalt events; J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth 99(B7) 13,813–13,833.Google Scholar
  34. Fershtater G B, Montero P, Borodina N S, Pushkarev E V, Smimov V N and Bea F 1997 Uralian magmatism: An overview; Tectonophysics 276 87–102.Google Scholar
  35. Foley J P, Light T D, Nelson S W and Harris R A 1997 Mineral occurrences associated with mafic–ultramafic and related alkaline complexes in Alaska; Econ. Geol. Monogr. 9 396–449.Google Scholar
  36. Foley S F, Prelevic D, Rehfeldt T and Jacob D E 2013 Minor and trace elements in olivines as probes into early igneous and mantle melting processes; Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 363 181–191.Google Scholar
  37. French J E and Heaman L M 2010 Precise U–Pb dating of Paleoproterozoic mafic dyke swarms of the Dharwar craton, India: Implications for the existence of the Neoarchean supercraton Sclavia; Precamb. Res. 183 416–441.Google Scholar
  38. French J E, Heaman L M, Chacko T and Srivastava R K 2008 1891–1883 Ma Southern Bastar Cuddapah mafic igneous events, India: A newly recognised large igneous province; Precamb. Res. 160 308–322.Google Scholar
  39. Ganne J and Feng X 2017 Primary magmas and mantle temperatures through time; Geochem. Geophys. 18 872–888.Google Scholar
  40. Gibson S A 2002 Major element heterogeneity in Archean to Recent mantle plume starting-heads; Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 195 59–74.Google Scholar
  41. Goodenough K M, Upton B G J and Ellam R M 2002 Long-term memory of subduction processes in the lithospheric mantle, evidence from the geochemistry of basic dykes in the Gardar Province of South Greenland; J. Geol. Soc. Lond. 159 705–714.Google Scholar
  42. Green D H and Falloon T J 2005 Primary magmas at mid-ocean ridges, ‘hotspots’ and other intraplate settings, constraints on mantle potential temperature; In: Plates, Plumes and Paradigms (eds) Foulger G R, Natland J H, Presnall D C and Anderson D L, Geol. Soc. Am. Spec. Paper 388 217–247.Google Scholar
  43. Guillou-Frottier L, Burov E, Augé T and Gloaguen E 2014 Rheological conditions for emplacement of Ural–Alaskan-type ultramafic complexes; Tectonophysics 631 130–145.Google Scholar
  44. Habtoor A, Ahmed A H and Harbi H 2016 Petrogenesis of the Alaskan-type mafic–ultramafic complex in the Makkah quadrangle, western Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia; Lithos 263 33–51.Google Scholar
  45. Hall R P and Hughes D J 1993 Early precambrian crustal development, Changing styles of mafic magmatism; J. Geol. Soc. Lond. 150 625–635.Google Scholar
  46. Halls H C, Kumar A, Srinivasan R and Hamilton M A 2007 Paleomagnetism and U-Pb geochronology of eastern trending dykes in the Dharwar craton, India, feldspar clouding, radiating dyke swarms and the position of India at 2.37 Ga; Precamb. Res. 155 47–68.Google Scholar
  47. Hawkesworth C J, Turner S P, McDermott F, Peate D W V and Calsteren P 1997 U–Th isotopes in arc magmas: Implication for element transfer from the subducted crust; Science 276 551–555.Google Scholar
  48. Heinonen J S, Jennings E S and Riley T R 2015 Crystallisation temperatures of the most Mg-rich magmas of the Karoo LIP on the basis of Al-in-olivine thermometry; Chem. Geol. 411 26–35.Google Scholar
  49. Helmy H M and Moggesie A 2001 Gabbro Akarem, Eastern Desert, Egypt, Cu–Ni–PGE mineralization in a concentrically zoned mafic–ultramafic complex; Mineral. Depos. 36 58–71.Google Scholar
  50. Helmy H M and El Mahallawi M M 2003 Gabbro Akarem mafic–ultramafic complex, Eastern Desert, Egypt: A late Precambrian analogue of Alaskan-type complexes; Mineral. Petrol. 77 85–108.Google Scholar
  51. Helmy H M, Yoshikawa M, Shibata T, Arai S and Tamura A 2008 Corona structure from arc mafic–ultramafic cumulates: The role and chemical characteristics of late-magmatic hydrous liquids; J. Mineral. Petrol. Sci. 103 333–344.Google Scholar
  52. Helmy H M, Abd El-Rahman Y, Yoshikawa M, Shibata M, Arai S, Kagami H and Tamura A 2014 Petrology and Sm–Nd dating of the Genina Gharbia Alaskan-type complex (Egypt), insights into deep levels of Neoproterozoic island arcs; Lithos 198–199 263–280.Google Scholar
  53. Helmy H M, Yoshikawa M, Shibata T, Arai S and Kagami H 2015 Sm–Nd and Rb–Sr isotope geochemistry and petrology of Abu Hamamid intrusion, Eastern Desert, Egypt, an Alaskan-type complex in a back arc setting; Precamb. Res. 258 234–246.Google Scholar
  54. Herzberg C and O’hara M J 2002 Plume-associated ultramafic magmas of Phanerozoic age; J. Petrol. 43 1857–1883.Google Scholar
  55. Herzberg C and Asimow P D 2015 PRIMELT3 MEGA.XLSM software for primary magma calculation, peridotite primary magma MgO contents from the liquidus to the solidus; Geochem. Geophys. 8 563–578.Google Scholar
  56. Herzberg C, Asimow P D, Arndt N T, Niu Y, Lesher C M, Fitton J G, Cheadle M J and Saunders A D 2007 Temperatures in ambient mantle and plumes: Constraints from basalts, picrites, and komatiites; Geochem. Geophys. 8(2) 1–34.Google Scholar
  57. Herzberg C, Condie K and Korenaga J 2010 Thermal history of the Earth and its petrological expression; Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 292 79–88.Google Scholar
  58. Himmelberg G R and Loney R A 1995 Characteristics and Petrogenesis of Alaskan-Type Ultramafic–Mafic Intrusions, Southeastern Alaska, vol. 56. US Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  59. Himmelberg G R, Loney R A and Craig J T 1986 Petrogenesis of the ultramafic complex of the Blashke Islands, southeastern Alaska; US Geol. Surv. Bull. 1662 14.Google Scholar
  60. Irvine T N 1965 Chromian spinel as a petrogenetic indicator. Part 1: Theory; Can. J. Earth Sci. 2 648–672.Google Scholar
  61. Irvine T N 1967 Chromian spinel as a petrogenetic indicator. Part 2: Petrologic applications; Can. J. Earth Sci. 4 71–103.Google Scholar
  62. Irvine T N 1974 Petrology of the Duke Island ultramafic complex, southeastern Alaska; Geol. Soc. Am. Mem. 138 1–240.Google Scholar
  63. Irvine T N 1976 Alaskan-type ultramafic-gabbro bodies in the Aiken Lake, McConnel Creek, and Toodagoone map-areas; Geolo. Surv. Canada Paper 76-1A 76–81.Google Scholar
  64. Jan M Q and Windley B F 1990 Chromian spinel-silicate chemistry in ultramafic rocks of the Jijal complex, northwest Pakistan; J. Petrol. 31 667–715.Google Scholar
  65. Jayananda M, Santosh M and Aadhiseshan K R 2018 Formation of Archean (3600–2500 Ma) continental crust in the Dharwar Craton, southern India; Earth Sci. Rev. 181 12–42.Google Scholar
  66. Johnson R W, Mackenzie D E and Smith I E M 1978 Delayed partial melting of subduction-modified mantle in Papua New Guinea; Tectonophys. 46 197–216.Google Scholar
  67. Kale V S 1991 Constraints on the evolution of the Purana basins of peninsular India; J. Geol. Soc. India 38 231–252.Google Scholar
  68. Kale V S 2016 Proterozoic basins of peninsular India: Status within the global Proterozoic systems; Proc. Indian Natl. Sci. Acad. 823 461–477.Google Scholar
  69. Kamenetsky V, Crawford A J and Meffre S 2001 Factors controlling chemistry of magmatic spinel, an empirical study of associated olivine, Cr-spinel and melt inclusions from primitive rocks; J. Petrol. 42 655–671.Google Scholar
  70. Kepezhinskas P, McDermott F, Defant M J, Hochstaedter A, Drummond M S, Hawkesworth C J, Koloskov A, Maury R C and Bellon H 1997 Trace element and Sr–Nd–Pb isotopic constraints on a three-component model of Kamchatka Arc petrogenesis; Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 61 577–600.Google Scholar
  71. Kepezhinskas P K, Taylor R N and Tanaka H 1993 Geochemistry of plutonic spinels from the north Kamchatka arc, comparisons with spinels from other tectonic settings; Mineral. Mag. 57 575–589.Google Scholar
  72. Keppler H 1996 Constraints from partitioning experiments on the composition of subduction-zone fluids; Nature 380 237–240.Google Scholar
  73. Khanna T C, Sesha Sai V V, Bizimis M and Keshav Krishna A 2015 Petrogenesis of basalt-high-Mg andesite-adakite in the Neoarchean Veligallu greenstone terrane, Geochemical evidence for a rifted back-arc crust in the eastern Dharwar craton, India; Precamb. Res. 258 260–277.Google Scholar
  74. Khanna T C, Sesha Sai V V, Bizimis M and Keshav Krishna A 2016 Petrogenesis of ultramafics in the Neoarchean Veligallu greenstone terrane, eastern Dharwar craton, India, Constraints from bulk-rock geochemistry and Lu–Hf isotopes; Precamb. Res. 285 186–201.Google Scholar
  75. Khedr M Z and Arai S 2016 Petrology of a Neoproterozoic Alaskan-type complex from the Eastern Desert of Egypt: Implications for mantle heterogeneity; Lithos 263 15–32.Google Scholar
  76. Krause J, Brügmann G E and Pushkarev E V 2007 Accessory and rock forming minerals monitoring the evolution of zoned mafic–ultramafic complexes in the Central Ural Mountains; Lithos 95 19–42.Google Scholar
  77. Kumar A, Hamilton M A and Halls H C 2012a A Paleoproterozoic giant radiating dyke swarm in the Dharwar Craton, southern India; Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 13 Q02011.Google Scholar
  78. Kumar A, Nagaraju E, Besse J and Bhaskar Rao YJ 2012b New age, geochemical and paleomagnetic data on a 2.21 Ga dyke swarm from south India: Constraints on Paleoproterozoic reconstruction; Precamb. Res. 220 123–138.Google Scholar
  79. Le Bas M J 1962 The role of aluminum in igneous clinopyroxenes with relation to their parentage; Am. J. Sci. 260 267–288.Google Scholar
  80. Le Maitre R W 2002 Igneous Rocks: A Classification and Glossary of Terms; 2nd edn, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 236p.Google Scholar
  81. Liu Y, Li Z X, Pisarevsky S, Kirscher U, Mitchell R N and Stark J C 2019 Palaeomagnetism of the 1.89 Ga Boonadgin dykes of the Yilgarn Craton: Possible connection with India; Precamb. Res. 329 211–223.Google Scholar
  82. Loucks R R 1990 Discrimination of ophiolitic from nonophiolitic ultramafic–mafic allochthons in orogenic belts by the Al/Ti ration in clinopyroxene; Geology 18 346–349.Google Scholar
  83. Mactavish A D 1999 The mafic–ultramafic intrusions of the Aitikokan–Quetico area northwestern Ontario; Ont. Geol. Surv. Open File Rep. 5997, 127.Google Scholar
  84. Mahadevan T M 2008 Precambrian geological and structural features of the Indian peninsula; J. Geol. Soc. India 72 35–55.Google Scholar
  85. Mall D M, Pandey O P, Chandrakala K and Reddy P R 2008 Imprints of a Proterozoic tectonothermal anomaly below the 1.1 Ga kimberlitic province of southwest Cuddapah basin, Dharwar craton (southern India); Geophys. J. Int. 172 422–438.Google Scholar
  86. Manikyamba C, Naqvi S M, Rao D S, Mohan M R, Khanna T C, Rao T G and Reddy G L N 2005 Boninites from the Neoarchaean Gadwal greenstone belt, Eastern Dharwar craton, India: Implications for Archaean subduction processes; Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 230 65–83.Google Scholar
  87. Matin A 2015 Tectonics of the Cuddapah Basin and a model of its evolution: A review; Geol. Soc. Lond. Mem. 43 231–254.Google Scholar
  88. Matthews S, Shorttle O and Maclennan J 2016 The temperature of the Icelandic mantle from olivine-spinel aluminum exchange thermometry; Geochem. Geophys. 17 4725–4752.Google Scholar
  89. Maurel C and Maurel P 1982 Étude expérimentale de la distribution de l’aluminium entre bain silicaté basique et spinelle chromifère. Implications pétrogénétiques, teneur en chrome des spineless; Bull. de Minéral. 105 197–202.Google Scholar
  90. Mckenzie D and Bickle M J 1988 The volume and composition of melt generated by extension of the lithosphere; J. Petrol. 29 625–679.Google Scholar
  91. Mckenzie D and O’nions R K 1991 Partial melt distributions from inversion of rare earth element concentrations; J. Petrol. 32 1021–1091.Google Scholar
  92. Morimoto N 1989 Nomenclature of pyroxenes; Can. Mineral. 27 143–156.Google Scholar
  93. Münker C 2000 The isotope and trace element budget of the Cambrian Devil River Arc System, New Zealand: Identification of four source components; J. Petrol. 41 759–788.Google Scholar
  94. Murthy NGK 1987 Mafic dyke swarms of the Indian shield; In: Mafic Dyke Swarms (eds) Halls H C and Fahriig W F, Geol. Asso. Canada Spec. Paper 34 393–400.Google Scholar
  95. Nagaraja Rao B K, Rajurkar S T, Ramlingaswamy G and Ravindra Babu B 1987 Stratigraphy, structure and evolution of the Cuddapah basin; In: Purana Basins of Peninsular India (Middle to Late Proterozoic) (ed) Radhakrishna B P, Geol. Soc. India Memoir 6 33–86.Google Scholar
  96. Naqvi S M and Rogers J J W 1987 Precambrian Geology of India; Oxford Monographs on Geology and Geophysics No. 6, Oxford University Press, New York, 233p.Google Scholar
  97. Pandey A, Chalapathi Rao N V, Chakrabarti R, Pandit D, Pankaj P, Kumar A and Sahoo S 2017a Petrogenesis of a Mesoproterozoic shoshonitic lamprophyre dyke from the Wajrakarur kimberlite field, eastern Dharwar craton, southern India: Geochemical and Sr–Nd isotopic evidence for a modified sub-continental lithospheric mantle source; Lithos 29 218–233.Google Scholar
  98. Pandey A, Chalapathi Rao N V, Pandit D, Pankaj P, Pandey R, Sahoo S and Kumar A 2017b Subduction-tectonics in the evolution of the eastern Dharwar craton, southern India, Insights from the post–collisional calc-alkaline lamprophyres at the western margin of the Cuddapah basin; Precamb. Res. 298 235–251.Google Scholar
  99. Pandey A, Chalapathi Rao N V, Chakrabarti R, Pankaj P, Pandit D, Pandey R and Sahoo S 2018 Post-collisional calc-alkaline lamprophyres from the Kadiri greenstone belt: Evidence for the Neoarchean convergence-related evolution of the Eastern Dharwar Craton and its schist belts; Lithos 320 105–117.Google Scholar
  100. Patranabis-Deb S, Saha D and Tripathy V 2012 Basin stratigraphy, sea-level fluctuations and their global tectonic connections—evidence from the Proterozoic Cuddapah Basin; Geol. J. 47 263–283.Google Scholar
  101. Pearce J A, Barker P, Edwards S, Parkinson I and Leat P 2000 Geochemistry and tectonic significance of peridotites from the South Sandwich arc–basin system, South Atlantic; Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 139 36–53.Google Scholar
  102. Pettigrew N T and Hattori K H 2006 The Quetico intrusions of western Superior Province, Neo-Archean examples of Alaskan/Ural-type mafic–ultramafic intrusions; Precamb. Res. 149 21–42.Google Scholar
  103. Pichavant M and Macdonald R 2007 Crystallization of primitive basaltic magmas at crustal pressures and genesis of the calc-alkaline igneous suite: Experimental evidence from St Vincent, Lesser Antilles arc; Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 154 535–558.Google Scholar
  104. Putirka K D, Perfit M, Ryerson F J and Jackson M G 2007 Ambient and excess mantle temperatures, olivine thermometry, and active vs. passive upwelling; Chem. Geol. 241 177–206.Google Scholar
  105. Radhakrishna BP 1987 Purana Basins of peninsular India; Geol. Soc. India Memoir 6 518p.Google Scholar
  106. Ram Mohan M, Piercey S J, Kamber B S and Sarma D S 2013 Subduction related tectonic evolution of the Neoarchean Eastern Dharwar craton, southern India: New geochemical and isotopic constraints; Precamb. Res. 227 204–226.Google Scholar
  107. Ramakrishnan M and Vaidyanadhan R 2010 Geology of India, Geological Society of India, Bangalore, 994p.Google Scholar
  108. Richter F M 1988 A major change in the thermal state of the earth at the Archean–Proterozoic boundary, consequences for the nature and preservation of continental lithosphere; J. Petrol. Spec. 1 39–52.Google Scholar
  109. Rollinson H 2008 The geochemistry of mantle chromitites from the northern part of the Oman ophiolite, inferred parental melt compositions; Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 156 273–288.Google Scholar
  110. Rublee V J 1994 Chemical petrology, mineralogy and structure of the Tulameen Complex, Princeton area, British Colombia; M.Sc. dissertation, University of Ottawa, Canada, 179p.
  111. Rudnick R L and Fountain D M 1995 Nature and composition of the continental crust: A lower crustal perspective; Rev. Geophys. 33(3) 267–309.Google Scholar
  112. Rudnick R L and Gao S 2003 Composition of the continental crust; Treatise Geochem. 3 659p.Google Scholar
  113. Ryan J, Morris J, Bebout G, Leeman B and Tera F 1996 Describing chemical fluxes in subduction zones: Insights from “depth-profiling” studies of arc and forearc rocks; Geophys. Monogr. Am. Geophys. Union 96 263–268.Google Scholar
  114. Saha D and Tripathy V 2012 Palaeoproterozoic sedimentation in the Cuddapah Basin, south India and regional tectonics: A review; In: Palaeoproterozoic of India (eds) Mazumder R and Saha D, Geol. Soc. London Spec. Publ. 365 161–184.Google Scholar
  115. Samal A K, Srivastava R K, Ernst R E and Söderlund U 2019 Neoarchean–Mesoproterozoic mafic dyke swarms of the Indian Shield mapped using Google Earth™ images and ArcGIS™ and links with large igneous provinces; In: Dyke Swarms of the World—A Modern Perspective (eds) Srivastava R K, Ernst R E and Peng P, Springer, Heidelburg, pp. 335–390.Google Scholar
  116. Sandeman H A and Ryan J J 2008 The Spi Lake Formation of the central Hearne domain, western Churchill Province, Canada: An axial intracratonic continental tholeiite trough above the cogenetic Kaminak dyke swarm; Can. J. Earth Sci. 45 745–767.Google Scholar
  117. Saunders A D, Norry M J and Tarney J 1991 Fluid influence on the trace element compositions of subduction zone magmas; Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond A 335(1638) 377–392.Google Scholar
  118. Saunders A D, Tarney J and Weaver S D 1980 Transverse geochemical variations across the Antarctic Peninsula: Implications for the genesis of calc-alkaline magmas; Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 46(3) 344–360.Google Scholar
  119. Sesha Sai V V, Tripathy V, Bhattacharjee S and Khanna T C 2017 Paleoproterozoic magmatism in the Cuddapah basin, India; J. Indian Geophys. Union 21 516–525.Google Scholar
  120. Sharpe M R and Hulbert L J 1985 Ultramafic sills beneath the eastern Bushveld Complex: Mobilized suspensions of early lower zone cumulates in a parental magma with boninitic affinities; Econ. Geol. 80 849–871.Google Scholar
  121. Shellnutt J G, Hari K R, Liao A C, Denyszyn S W and Vishwakarma N 2018 A 1.88 Ga giant radiating mafic dyke swarm across southern India and western Australia; Precamb. Res. 308 58–74.Google Scholar
  122. Shellnutt J G and Pham Thuy T 2018 Mantle potential temperature estimates and primary melt compositions of the low-Ti Emeishan Flood Basalt; Front. Earth Sci. 6 1–10.Google Scholar
  123. Sheppard S, Rasmussen B, Zi J W, Somasekhar V, Sarma D S, Mohan M R, Krapež B, Wilde S A and McNaughton N J 2017 Sedimentation and magmatism in the Paleoproterozoic Cuddapah Basin, India, Consequences of lithospheric extension; Gondwana. Res. 48 153–163.Google Scholar
  124. Smith E I, Sánchez A, Walker J D and Wang K 1999 Geochemistry of mafic magmas in the hurricane volcanic field, Utah: Implications for small- and large-scale chemical variability of the lithospheric mantle; J. Geol. 107 433–448.Google Scholar
  125. Söderlund U, Bleeker W, Demirer K, Srivastava R K, Hamilton M, Nilsson M, Pesonen L, Samal A K, Jayananda M, Ernst R E and Srinivas M 2019 Emplacement ages of Paleoproterozoic mafic dyke swarms in eastern Dharwar craton, India: Implications for paleoreconstructions and support for a ~30° change in dyke trends from south to north; Precamb. Res. 329 26–43.Google Scholar
  126. Spandler C and O’neill HSC 2010 Diffusion and partition coefficients of minor and trace elements in San Carlos olivine at 1,300°C with some geochemical implications; Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 159 791–818.Google Scholar
  127. Srivastava R K and Gautam G C 2015 Geochemistry and petrogenesis of Paleo-Mesoproterozoic mafic dyke swarms from northern Bastar craton, central India. Geodynamic implications in reference to Columbia supercontinent; Gondwana. Res. 28 1061–1078.Google Scholar
  128. Srivastava R K and Samal A K 2019 Geochemical characterization, petrogenesis, and emplacement tectonics of Paleoproterozoic high-Ti and low-Ti mafic intrusive rocks from the western Arunachal Himalaya, northeastern India and their possible relation to the ~1.9 Ga LIP event of the Indian shield; Geol. J. 54 245–265.Google Scholar
  129. Srivastava R K, Sivaji C and Chalapathi Rao N V 2008 Indian Dyke, Geochemistry, Geophysics and Geochronology, Narosa Publishing House Pvt Ltd, New Delhi, 626p.Google Scholar
  130. Srivastava R K, Jayananda M, Gautam G C and Samal A K 2014a ~2.21–2.22 Ga N–S to NNW–SSE trending Kunigal mafic dyke swarm from Eastern Dharwar Craton, India. Implications for Paleoproterozoic large igneous provinces and supercraton Superia; Mineral. Petrol. 109 695–711.Google Scholar
  131. Srivastava R K, Jayananda M, Gautam G C, Gireesh V and Samal A K 2014b Geochemistry of an ENE–WSW to NE–SW trending ~2.37 Ga mafic dyke swarm of the Eastern Dharwar Craton, India. Does it represent a single magmatic event? Chem der Erde 74 251–265.Google Scholar
  132. Srivastava R K, Samal A K and Gautam G C 2015 Geochemical characteristics and petrogenesis of four Palaeoproterozoic mafic dike swarms and associated large igneous provinces from the eastern Dharwar craton, India; Int. Geol. Rev. 57 1462–1484.Google Scholar
  133. Srivastava R K, Pimentel M and Gautam G C 2016 Nd isotope and geochemistry of an early Palaeoproterozoic high-Si high-Mg boninite–norite suite of rocks in the southern Bastar craton, central India: Petrogenesis and tectonic significance; Int. Geol. Rev. 58 1596–1615.Google Scholar
  134. Stark J C, Wang X C, Denyszyn S W, Li Z X, Rasmussen B, Zi J W, Sheppard S and Liu Y 2019 Newly identified 1.89 Ga mafic dyke swarm in the Archean Yilgarn Craton, western Australia suggests a connection with India; Precamb. Res. 329 156–169.Google Scholar
  135. Stern C R and Kilian R 1996 Role of the subducted slab, mantle wedge and continental crust in the generation of adakites from the Andean Austral Volcanic Zone; Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 123 263–281.Google Scholar
  136. Stevens RE 1944 Composition of some chromites of the western Hemisphere; Am. Mineral. 29 1–34.Google Scholar
  137. Stolper E and Newman S 1994 The role of water in the petrogenesis of Mariana trough magmas; Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 121 293–325.Google Scholar
  138. Stracke A, Bizimis M and Salters V J M 2003 Recycling oceanic crust: Quantitative constraints; Geochem. Geophys. 4 8003.Google Scholar
  139. Su B X, Qin K Z, Sakyi P A, Malaviarachchi S P K, Liu P P, Tang D M, Xiao Q H, Sun H, Ma Y G and Mao Q 2012 Occurrence of an Alaskan-type complex in the middle Tianshan massif, Central Asian Orogenic belt: Inferences from petrological and mineralogical studies; Int. Geol. Rev. 54 249–269.Google Scholar
  140. Sun S S and McDonough W F 1989 Chemical and isotopic systematics of oceanic basalt: Implication for mantle composition and Processes; In: Magmatism in the Ocean Basin (eds) Saunders A D and Morry M J, Geol. Soc. London, Spec. Publ. 42 528–548.Google Scholar
  141. Sun S S, Nesbitt R W and McCulloch M 1989 Geochemistry and petrogenesis of Archaean and early Proterozoic siliceous high-magnesian basalts; In: Boninites and Related Rocks (eds) Crawford A J, Unwin and Hyman. London, pp 148–173.Google Scholar
  142. Tatsumi Y 1989 Migration of fluid phases and genesis of basalt magmas in subduction zones; J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth 94 4697–4707.Google Scholar
  143. Taylor Jr H P and Noble J A 1969 Origin of magnetite in the zoned ultramafic complexes of southeastern Alaska; Magmat. Ore Depos. 4 209–230.Google Scholar
  144. Taylor H P 1967 The zoned ultramafic complexes of southeastern Alaska; In: Ultramafic and Related Rocks (ed.) Wyllie P J, Wiley, New York, pp. 97–121.Google Scholar
  145. Taylor S R and McLennan S M 1985 The Continental Crust: Its Composition and Evolution; Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, 312p.Google Scholar
  146. Turner S, Hawkesworth C, Rogers N, Bartlett J, Worthington T, Hergt J, Pearce J and Smith I 1997 238U–230Th disequilibrium, magma petrogenesis, and flux rates beneath the depleted Tonga-Kermadec island arc; Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 61 4855–4884.Google Scholar
  147. Wan Z, Coogan L A and Canil D 2008 Experimental calibration of aluminum partitioning between olivine and spinel as a geothermometer; Am. Mineral. 93 1142–1147.Google Scholar
  148. Weaver B L and Tarney J 1984 Empirical approach to estimating the composition of the continental crust; Nature 310 575–577.Google Scholar
  149. Wilson A H 1982 The geology of the Great ‘Dyke’, Zimbabwe, the ultramafic rocks; J. Petrol. 23 240–292.Google Scholar
  150. Wolfe C J, Bjarnason I T, Vandecar J C and Solomon S C 1997 Seismic structure of the Iceland mantle plume; Nature 385 245–247.Google Scholar
  151. Wyllie P J 1967 Ultramafic and Related Rocks; Wiley, New York, 464p.Google Scholar
  152. Xu R and Liu Y 2016 Al-in-olivine thermometry evidence for the mantle plume origin of the Emeishan large igneous province; Lithos 266–267 362–366.Google Scholar
  153. Zhang C L, Yang D S, Wang H Y, Takahashi Y and Ye H M 2011 Neoproterozoic mafic–ultramafic layered intrusion in Quruqtagh of northeastern Tarim Block, NW China: Two phases of mafic igneous activity with different mantle sources; Gondwana. Res. 19(1) 177–190.Google Scholar
  154. Zhao J H and Asimow P D 2018 Formation and evolution of a magmatic system in a rifting continental margin: Neoproterozoic arc-and MORB-like dike swarms in South China; J. Petrol. 59 1811–1844.Google Scholar
  155. Zhao J X and McCulloch M T 1993 Melting of a subduction-modified continental lithospheric, mantle: Evidence from Late Proterozoic mafic dike swarms, in central Australia; Geology 21 463–466.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amiya K Samal
    • 1
  • Rajesh K Srivastava
    • 1
    Email author
  • Gulab C Gautam
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Geology, Centre of Advanced Study, Institute of ScienceBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Applied GeologyDr. Harisingh Gour Central UniversitySagarIndia

Personalised recommendations