Satellite-based observation of lightning climatology over Nepal
- 101 Downloads
The lightning climatology over Nepal is analysed in detail for the first time. For the analysis, we utilised the satellite-based lightning imaging sensor data for the period from 1998 to 2013. A comparison of these climatological results is also performed with two ground-based lightning detection networks, namely, the World Wide Lightning Location Network and the Global Lightning Network for 3 yr from 2011 to 2013. On analysing the data obtained from the three sources, we conclude that the months of April and May are extremely vulnerable in the perspective of lightning hazards in Nepal, in contrast to the results reported previously which indicated that the maximum lightning activity occurred in the month of June. The central and eastern regions of the country receive the majority of lightning strikes during the months of April and May. The present finding is supported by the thunderstorm frequency data obtained from the disaster Information Management System, Nepal and also from thunder-day data from NOAA.
KeywordsLightning climatology over Nepal lightning detection efficiency hydrometeors
We cordially thank Prof. Robert H Holzworth, University of Washington, USA for the provision of the WWLLN data, NASA GSFC for the LIS lightning data WSI for the provision of the GLN data. The authors are thankful to Disaster Information Management System (Desinventar) for giving access to the thunderstorm data over Nepal and also the National Center for Atmospheric Research for given NCEP/NCAR reanalysis vector wind data at a different pressure level along with surface temperature, relative humidity, CAPE and CIN. The authors also thank the NASA Earth System Science for providing us the valuable Cloudsat data. The work was supported by the NAM S&T Centre by providing research training fellowship for developing country scientists (RTF-DCS) – Award of Fellowship for 2016–2017 to the second author of this manuscript, the LDN project, funded by the Society for Applied Microwave Electronics Engineering & Research (SAMEER), Ministry of Communications & Information Technology, Government of India and DST-FIST fund reference Ref.SR/FST/PSI-191/2014, Government of India.
- Barros A P and Lang T J 2003 Exploring spatial modes of variability of terrain–atmosphere interactions in the Himalayas during monsoon onset; Hydro Sciences Report Series, 03-001, Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, 51p.Google Scholar
- Barros A P, Kim G, Williams E and Nesbitt S W 2004 Probing orographic controls in the Himalayas during the monsoon using satellite imagery; Nat. Hazards 4 29–51.Google Scholar
- Boeck W L, Mach D, Goodman S J and Christian H J Jr 1999 Optical observations of lightning in Northern India, Himalayan mountain countries and Tibet; In: 11th International conference on atmospheric electricity, NASA Conf. Publication, NASA/CP-1999-209261, pp. 420–423.Google Scholar
- Bluestein H B 1993 Observations and theory of weather systems; vol. 2, Synoptic-dynamic meteorology in mid-latitudes, Oxford University Press, 282p.Google Scholar
- Christian H J et al. 1999 The lightning imaging sensor; In: NASA Conference Publication, NASA, pp. 746–749.Google Scholar
- Christian H J, Blakeslee R J, Boccippio D J, Boeck W L, Buechler D E, Driscoll K T, Goodman S J, Hall J M, Koshak W J, Mach D M and Stewart M F 2003 Global frequency and distribution of lightning as observed from space by the optical transient detector; J. Geophys. Res. 108 ACL 4-1–ACL 4-15.Google Scholar
- IPCC, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2007 The physical science basis; Cambridge University Press, New York, pp. 131–216.Google Scholar
- Kayastha S P and Regmi S K 2008 Nor’westers and tornadoes over the SAARC region and their forecasting and preparedness; In: Proceedings of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) Seminar, 20–21 August 2008, Dhaka, Bangladesh, pp. 28–34.Google Scholar
- MacGorman D R and Rust W D 1998 The electrical nature of storms; Oxford Univ. Press, New York, NY.Google Scholar
- Malla G 2008 Climate change and its impact on Nepalese agriculture; J. Agric. Env. 9.Google Scholar
- Mansell E R, MacGorman D R, Ziegler C L, Straka J M 2005 Charge structure and lightning sensitivity in a simulated multicell thunderstorm; J. Geophys. Res. 110, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004JD005287.
- Robinson P J and Henderson-Sellers A 1999 Contemporary characteristics; Addison Wesley, Longman, 317p.Google Scholar
- Sarkar S K, Bhattacharya A B and Sen A K 1980 Characteristics of VLF atmospherics during tropical thunderstorm; Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. A 29 131–141.Google Scholar
- Srivastava S, Ray P K C, Shakya B, Joshi D, Kumar D R and Dhar P G 2007 South Asian Disaster Report (SAARC Disaster Management Center, New Delhi).Google Scholar