Seasonal variation of evapotranspiration and its effect on the surface energy budget closure at a tropical forest over north-east India

  • Pramit Kumar Deb BurmanEmail author
  • Dipankar Sarma
  • Ross Morrison
  • Anandakumar Karipot
  • Supriyo Chakraborty


This study uses 1 yr of eddy covariance (EC) flux observations to investigate seasonal variations in evapotranspiration (ET) and surface energy budget (SEB) closure at a tropical semi-deciduous forest located in north-east India. The annual cycle is divided into four seasons, namely, pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon and winter. The highest energy balance closure (76%) is observed during pre-monsoon, whereas the lowest level of closure (62%) is observed during winter. Intermediate closure of 68% and 72% is observed during the monsoon and post-monsoon seasons, respectively. Maximum latent heat flux during winter (\(\hbox {150 W m}^{-2}\)) is half of the maximum latent heat (\(\hbox {300 W m}^{-2}\)) flux during the monsoon. ET is a controlling factor of SEB closure, with the highest rates of closure corresponding to the periods of the highest ET. The Bowen ratio ranges from 0.93 in winter to 0.27 during the monsoon. This is the first time the role of ET in the seasonal variation of SEB closure has been reported for any ecosystem in north-east India using EC measurements.


Eddy covariance Indian summer monsoon MetFlux India surface energy budget tropical forest India 



We express our sincere gratitude to the director, IITM for his constant encouragement and support. We thank all the members of the project team for all possible help. The Centre for Climate Change Research (CCCR) is part of the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune (IITM) and is fully supported by Earth System Science Organisation (ESSO) of the Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES), Government of India.


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© Indian Academy of Sciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Climate Change ResearchIndian Institute of Tropical MeteorologyPuneIndia
  2. 2.Department of Atmospheric and Space SciencesSavitribai Phule Pune UniversityPuneIndia
  3. 3.Department of Environmental SciencesTezpur UniversityTezpurIndia
  4. 4.Land Surface Science, Hydro-Climate RisksNERC Centre for Ecology and HydrologyWallingfordUK

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