Groundwater potential assessment of the Sero plain using bivariate models of the frequency ratio, Shannon entropy and evidential belief function

  • Saeed Khoshtinat
  • Babak AminnejadEmail author
  • Yousef Hassanzadeh
  • Hasan Ahmadi


The goal of the present research is to evaluate three bivariate models of the frequency ratio, Shannon entropy (SE) and evidential belief function in the spatial prediction of groundwater at the Sero plain located in west Azerbaijan, Iran. In the first phase, well locations with groundwater yields \({>}11\hbox { m}^{3}\)/hr were identified (75 well locations). Ten groundwater conditioning factors affecting the occurrence of groundwater, namely, altitude, slope degree, curvature, slope aspect, rainfall, soil, land-use, geology and distance from the fault and the river, were selected for modelling. Finally, the groundwater potential map results were drawn from three implemented models and they were validated using testing data by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). The AUCs of these models were 0.84, 81 and 85%, respectively. The results of the current study demonstrated that these models could be successfully employed for spatial prediction modelling. Moreover, the results of the SE model demonstrated that the most and the least important factors in groundwater occurrences in the area under study were altitude, curvature and rainfall, respectively. The results of this study are helpful for the Regional Water Authority of Urmia and the decision makers to comprehensively assess the groundwater exploration development and environmental management in future planning.


Groundwater potential frequency ratio Shannon entropy evidential belief function Sero plain hydrology and water resource remote sensing 



We would like to thank all who helped us during the accomplishment of the study.


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Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Saeed Khoshtinat
    • 1
  • Babak Aminnejad
    • 2
    Email author
  • Yousef Hassanzadeh
    • 3
  • Hasan Ahmadi
    • 2
  1. 1.Ph.D. Candidate, Water Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, Roudehen BranchIslamic Azad UniversityRoudehenIran
  2. 2.Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Roudehen BranchIslamic Azad UniversityRoudehenIran
  3. 3.Professor, Faculty of Civil EngineeringUniversity of TabrizTabrizIran

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