Advertisement

Evaluation of ambient air quality in Dehradun city during 2011–2014

  • Amar Deep
  • Chhavi P PandeyEmail author
  • Hemwati Nandan
  • K D Purohit
  • Narendra Singh
  • Jaydeep Singh
  • A K Srivastava
  • Narendra Ojha
Article
  • 24 Downloads

Abstract

The variations in the ambient concentrations of particulate matter (SPM and \(\hbox {PM}_{10}\)) and gaseous pollutants (\(\hbox {SO}_{2}\) and \(\hbox {NO}_{2}\)) at Clock tower (CT), Rajpur road (RR) and Inter State Bus Terminal (ISBT) station in Dehradun city, Uttarakhand, India are analysed for the period of 2011–2014. Mean concentrations are observed to be higher during pre-monsoon season as compared to the winter and monsoon. \(\hbox {PM}_{10}\) and SPM concentrations with maximum values of \(203\pm 23\) and \(429\pm 49\,\upmu \hbox {g m}^{-3}\), respectively, during winter, are found to exceed the national standards by factors of 2 and 3. Winter-time elevated pollution in Dehradun is attributed to the lower ventilation coefficient (derived from Era interim model fields) and minimal precipitation. Nevertheless, the \(\hbox {SO}_{2}\) and \(\hbox {NO}_{2}\) levels are observed to be within the criteria notified by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), India. Correlation analysis shows profound impacts of the meteorology and local dynamics on the observed variations in observed trace species. Additionally, the stronger inter-species correlation variations (\(r=0.79\) for \(\hbox {SO}_{2}\) with \(\hbox {NO}_{2}\), and \(r=0.89\) for \(\hbox {PM}_{10}\) with SPM), which may suggest their origin from common sources. Analysis of ‘Air Quality Index (AQI)’ variations indicates unhealthy atmospheric conditions near the major city centers and bus station. More observations in the region are highly desirable to understand the dispersion of the enhanced pollution in the Dehradun valley.

Keywords

Air pollutants statistical analysis meteorological parameters air quality index 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Dehradun Branches of Central Pollution Control Board and IMD for providing observation data used in this paper. One of the authors, AD is thankful to University Grants Commission (UGC) (Registration no.-14150), New Delhi, for the financial assistance under Campus Fellowship program for PhD. One of the authors NO acknowledges support and fruitful discussions with H N Nagaraja and L M S Palni at Graphic Era, Dehradun. The authors would also like to thank ECMWF, Shinfield Park, Reading, UK for producing ERA-Interim dataset, NOAA Air Resources Laboratory for the provision of HYSPLIT transport and dispersion model and NASA Langley Research Center Atmospheric Science Data Center for providing the MODIS fire count data. The authors are highly grateful to the anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments, which helped substantially to improve the manuscript.

References

  1. Akimoto H 2003 Global air quality and pollution; Science 302(5651) 1716–1719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aneja P V, Agarwal A, Roelle P A, Phillips S B, Tong Q, Watkins N and Yablonsk R 2001 Measurement and analysis of criteria pollutants in New Delhi, India; Environ. Int. 27(1) 35–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Awasthi S, Joshi P C, Pandey C P, Singh N and Nandan H 2016 Long term measurements of ambient air pollutants near a developing industrial township of district Haridwar, India; J. Am. Sci. 12(8) 85–91.Google Scholar
  4. Butler T M, Lawrence M G, Gurger B R, van Aardenne J, Schultz M and Lelieveld J 2008 The representation of emissions from mega cities in global emission inventories; Atmos. Environ. 42(4) 703–719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chauhan A and Joshi P C 2008 Air quality index and its variation in Haridwar; J. Atmos. Biosci. 22(2) 171–176.Google Scholar
  6. Chauhan A and Joshi P C 2010 Effect of ambient air pollutants on wheat and mustard crops growing in the vicinity of urban and industrial areas; New York Sci. J. 3(2) 52–60.Google Scholar
  7. Chauhan A, Pawar M, Kumar R and Joshi P C 2010 Ambient air quality status in Uttarakhand (India): A case study of Haridwar and Dehradun using air quality index; J. Am. Sci. 6(9) 565–574.Google Scholar
  8. CPCB 2003 Parivesh: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air and their effects of human health; Central Pollution Control Board, Ministry of Environment and Forest, New Delhi.Google Scholar
  9. CPCB 2012 National ambient air quality status and 1350 trends-2012, August 2014, Central Pollution Control Board, Delhi-32, India.Google Scholar
  10. CPCB 2015 Environmental data bank (CPCB), 1352, www.databank-cpcb.nic.in/.
  11. Deep A, Chhavi P P, Nandan H and Purohit K 2017 Analysis of air pollutants in Rishikesh and Dehradun city of Uttarakhand: Influence of surface meteorological parameters; J. Environ. Biosci. 31(2) 459–462.Google Scholar
  12. Dumka U C, Darga S S, Kaskaoutis D G, Kant Y and Mitra D 2017 Columnar aerosol characteristics and radiative forcing over the Doon Valley in the Shivalik range of northwestern Himalayas; Environ. Sci. Poll. Res. 23 25,467–25,484,  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-7766-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. ENVIS 2016 Newsletter on urban ambient air quality status in Uttarakhand.Google Scholar
  14. Geddes J A and Murphy J G 2012 The science of smog: A chemical understanding of ground level ozone and fine particulate matter; In: Metropolitan Sustainability, Woodhead Publishing, pp. 205–230.Google Scholar
  15. Gurjar B R, Butler T M, Lawrence M G and Lelieveld J 2008 Evaluation of emissions and air quality in mega cities; Atmos. Environ. 42(7) 1593–1606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gurjar B R, Ravindra K and Nagpure A S 2016 Air pollution trends over Indian megacities and their local to-global implication; Atmos. Environ. 142 475–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gurjar B R, Jain A, Sharma A, Agarwal A, Gupta P, Nagpure A S and Lelieveld J 2010 Human health risks in megacities due to air pollution; Atmos. Environ. 44(36) 4606–4613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. IMD 2015 India Meteorological Department Annual Report; Ministry of Earth Science, Government of India.Google Scholar
  19. Jacobs M and Hochheiser S 1958 Continuous sampling and ultramicro determination of nitrogen dioxide in air; Anal. Chem. 30(3) 426–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kanakidou M, Mihalopoulos N, Kindap T, Im U, Vrekoussis M, Gerasopoulos E, Dermitzaki E, Unal A, Koçak M, Markakis K and Melas D 2011 Megacities as hot spots of air pollution in the East Mediterranean; Atmos. Environ. 45(6) 1223–1235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Krass F 2007 Megacities and global change: Key priorities; Geog. J. 173(1) 79–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kumar R, Naja M, Satheesh S K, Ojha N, Joshi H, Sarangi T, Pant P, Dumka U C, Hegde P and Venkataramani S 2011 Influences of the springtime northern Indian biomass burning over the central Himalayas; J. Geophys. Res.: Atmos. 116(D19).Google Scholar
  23. Kumar R, Barth M C, Madronich S, Naja M, Carmichael G. R, Pfister G G, Knote C, Brasseur G P, Ojha N and Sarangi T 2014 Effects of dust aerosols on tropospheric chemistry during a typical pre-monsoon season dust storm in northern India; Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14 6813–6834;  https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-6813-2014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mishra A K, Klingmueller K, Fredj E, Lelieveld J, Rudich Y and Koren I 2014 Radiative signature of absorbing aerosol over the eastern Mediterranean basin; Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14(14) 7213–7231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Molina M J and Molina L T 2004 Megacities and atmospheric pollution; J. Air Waste Manag. Assoc. 54(6) 644–680.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. NAAQMS 2009–2010 National ambient air quality monitoring series; Central Pollution Control Board, Ministry of Environment and Forest.Google Scholar
  27. Ojha N, Naja M, Singh K P, Sarangi T, Kumar R, Lal S, Lawrence M G, Butler T M and Chandola H C 2012 Variabilities in ozone at a semi-urban site in the Indo-Gangetic Plain region: Association with the meteorology and regional Processes; J. Geophys. Res. 117 D20301,  https://doi.org/10.1029/2012JD017716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ojha N, Naja M, Sarangi T, Kumar R, Bhardwaj P, Lal S, Venkataramani S, Sagar R, Kumar A and Chandola H C 2014 On the processes influencing the vertical distribution of ozone over the central Himalayas: Analysis of yearlong ozonesonde observations; Atmos. Environ. 88 201–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ojha N, Pozzer A, Akritidis D and Lelieveld J 2017 Secondary ozone peaks in the troposphere over the Himalayas; Atmos. Chem. Phys. 17 6743–6757,  https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-6743-2017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rai P K and Chutia B M 2014 Assessment of ambient air quality status before and after shifting cultivation in an Indo-Burma hotspot region; Int. Res. J. Environ. Sci. 3(11) 1–5.Google Scholar
  31. Ramanathan V and Feng Y 2009 Air pollution, greenhouse gases and climate change: Global and regional perspectives; Atmos. Environ. 43 37–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ravindra K, Sindu M K, Mor S, John S and Pyne S 2016 Air pollution in India: Bridging the gap between science and policy; J. Hazard Toxic Radioact. Waste 20(4) A4015003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sarangi T, Manish N, Ojha N, Kumar R, Lal S, Venkataramani S, Kumar A, Sagar R and Chandola H C 2014 First simulation measurement of ozone, CO, and NO\(_{y}\) at a high-altitude regional representative site in the central Himalayas; J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 119 1592–1611,  https://doi.org/10.1002/2013JD020631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sharma M, Pal B, Pal A and Bajpai A B 2017 Spatio-temporal changes and impact of air pollution on human health: A case study of Dehradun city; Int. J. Environ. Reh. Cons. 8 1–10.Google Scholar
  35. Sokhi R S and Kitwiroon N 2008 Air pollution in urban areas; In: World Atlas of Atmospheric Pollution (ed.) Sokhi R S, Anthem Press, London, UK.Google Scholar
  36. Solanki R, Singh N, Pant P, Dumka U C, Kumar Y B, Srivastava A K, Bisht S and Chandola H C 2013 Detection of long range transport of aerosols with elevated layers over high altitude station in the central Himalayas: A case study on 22 and 24 March 2012 at ARIES, Nainital; Indian J. Radio Space Phys. 42 232–239.Google Scholar
  37. Srinivas J and Purushotham A V 2013 Determination of air quality index status in industrial areas of Visakhapatnam, India; Res. J. Eng. Sci. 2(6) 13–24.Google Scholar
  38. Srivastava A K, Soni V K, Singh S, Kanawade V P, Singh N, Tiwari S and Attri S D 2014 An early South Asian dust storm during March 2012 and its impacts on Indian Himalayan foothills: A case study; Sci. Total Environ. 493 526–534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Stain A F, Draxler R R, Rolph G D, Stunder B J B, Cohen M D and Ngan F 2015 NOAA’s HYSPLIT atmospheric transport and dispersion modeling system; Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 96 2059–2077,  https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-14-00110.1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Tiwari S, Dumka U C, Gautam A S, Kaskaoutis D G, Srivastava A K, Bisht D S, Chakrabarty R K, Sumlin B J and Solmon F 2017 Assessment of \(\text{ PM }_{2.5}\) and \(\text{ PM }_{10}\) over Guwahati in Brahmaputra River Valley: Temporal evolution, source apportionment and meteorological, dependence; Atmos. Pollut. Res. 8 13–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. UN-Habitat 2012 State of the World’s Cities 2008/9; Harmonious Cities, Routledge.Google Scholar
  42. Wenzel F, Bendimerad F and Sinha R 2007 Megacities – mega risks; Nat. Hazards 4 481–491,  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-006-9073-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. West P W and Gaeke G C 1956 Fixation of sulphur dioxide as sulfitomercurat (II) I and subsequent colorimetric determination; J. Anal. Chem. 28 1816–1819.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amar Deep
    • 1
  • Chhavi P Pandey
    • 2
    Email author
  • Hemwati Nandan
    • 3
  • K D Purohit
    • 1
  • Narendra Singh
    • 4
  • Jaydeep Singh
    • 4
  • A K Srivastava
    • 5
  • Narendra Ojha
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsH N B Garhwal UniversitySrinagar, GarhwalIndia
  2. 2.Wadia Institute of Himalayan GeologyDehradunIndia
  3. 3.Department of PhysicsGurukula Kangri VishwavidyalayaHaridwarIndia
  4. 4.Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational SciencesNainitalIndia
  5. 5.Indian Institute of Tropical MeteorologyNew DelhiIndia
  6. 6.Department of PhysicsGraphic Era UniversityDehradunIndia

Personalised recommendations