Occurrence of diamond in peninsular India and its relationship with deep Earth seismic properties

  • Gokul SahaEmail author
  • S S Rai
  • Shalivahan


An improved shear wave velocity \((V_{\mathrm{s}})\) structure of the lithosphere of peninsular India using the surface wave tomography from the ambient noise and earthquake waveforms suggests its bipolar character. While most of the geological domains of India are characterised by a uniform lithospheric mantle of \(V_{\mathrm{s}} \sim 4.5~\hbox {km/s}\), the three cratonic regions, eastern Dharwar, Bastar and Singhbhum, hosting most of the diamondiferous kimberlite fields, show significantly high \(V_{\mathrm{s}}\) of 4.7 km/s and above in their lower lithosphere beyond \({\sim } 90~\hbox {km}\) depth. The higher velocity could best be explained by the presence of diamond and/or eclogite along with peridotite in mantle. This unique relationship suggests the regional seismic image of lithosphere as a guide for exploration of diamonds.


Daimond kimberlite craton surface wave tomography 



Indian seismological data were provided by CSIR-NGRI and CSIR-4PI Institute. We thank the two institutes for their support. The seismic waveform data from other stations were obtained from IRIS Data Management Center. This research was supported by the Ministry of Earth Sciences grant MoES/PO (Geosci)/58/2016 titled ‘Multi-scale deep geology of India-Eurasia region and adjoining sea’ and the Department of Science and Technology (JC Bose National fellowship to SSR) of the Government of India. SSR thanks Dr Babu (NGRI) for providing unpublished geochemical data and research abstract for the Bastar kimberlite field.

Supplementary material

12040_2019_1088_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.5 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (docx 1509 KB)


  1. Acton C E, Priestley K, Gaur V K and Rai S S 2010 Group velocity tomography of the Indo-Eurasian collision zone; J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth 115 B12335, Scholar
  2. Barmin M P, Ritzwoller M H and Levshin A L 2001 A fast and reliable method for surface wave tomography; Pure Appl. Geophys. 158 1351–1375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bensen G D, Ritzwoller M H and Shapiro N M 2008 Broadband ambient noise surface wave tomography across the United States; J. Geophys. Res.: Solid Earth 113(B5).Google Scholar
  4. Bensen G D, Ritzwoller M H, Barmin M P, Levshin A L, Lin F, Moschetti M P, Shapiro N M and Yang Y 2007 Processing seismic ambient noise data to obtain reliable broad-band surface wave dispersion measurements; Geophys. J. Int. 169 1239–1260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chalapathi Rao N V, Lehmann B, Belousova E, Frei D and Mainkar D 2013 Petrology, bulk-rock geochemistry, indicator mineral composition and zircon U–Pb geochronology of the end-cretaceous diamondiferous Mainpur orangeites, Bastar craton, central India; In: Proceedings of 10th International Kimberlite Conference (eds) Pearson D G et al., Vol. 1, J. Geol. Soc. India,
  6. Das R and Rai S S 2017 Extensive seismic anisotropy in the lower crust of Archean metamorphic terrain, south India inferred from ambient noise tomography; Tectonophys694 164–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dongre A N, Jacob D E and Stern R A 2015 Subduction related origin of eclogite xenoliths from the Wajrakarur kimberlite field, Eastern Dharwar craton, southern India: Constraints from petrology and geochemistry; Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 166 165–188, Scholar
  8. Garber J M, Maurya S, Hernandez J A, Duncan M S, Zeng L, Zhang H L, Faul U, McCammon C, Montagner J P, Moresi L and Romanowicz B A 2018 Multidisciplinary constraints on the abundance of diamond and eclogite in the cratonic lithosphere; Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 19 2062–2086, Scholar
  9. Griffin W L and O’Reilly S Y 2007 Cratonic lithospheric mantle: Is anything subducted? Episodes 30 43–53.Google Scholar
  10. Herrmann R B and Ammon C J 2004 Surface wave, receiver function, and crustal structure; Computer programs in seismology, version 3.30, St. Louis University.Google Scholar
  11. Hirsch A C, Dalton C A and Ritsema J 2015 Constraints on shear velocity in the cratonic upper mantle from Rayleigh wave phase velocity; Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 16 3982–4005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Julia J, Jagadeesh S, Rai S S and Owens T J 2009 Deep crustal structure of the Indian shield from joint inversion of P-wave receiver functions and Rayleigh wave group velocities: Implications for Precambrian evolution; J. Geophys. Res. 114 B10313, Scholar
  13. Karmalkar N R, Duraiswami R A, Chalapathi Rao N V and Paul D K 2009 Mantle derived mafic–ultramafic xenoliths and the nature of Indian subcontinental lithosphere; J. Geol. Soc. India 73 657–679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Maurya S, Montagnier J P, Kumar M R, Stutzmann E, Kiselev S, Burgos G, Rao N P and Srinagesh D 2016 Imaging the lithospheric structure beneath the Indian continent; J. Geophys. Res.: Solid Earth 121 7450–7468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Mitra S, Priestley K, Gaur V K and Rai S S 2006 Shear-wave structure of the south Indian lithosphere from Rayleigh wave phase-velocity measurements; Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 96(4A) 1551–1559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Naqvi S M and Rogers J J W 1987 Precambrian geology of India; Oxford University Press, New York, 223p.Google Scholar
  17. Rawlinson N and Spankman W 2016 On the use of sensitivity tests in seismic tomography; Geophys. J. Int. 205 1221–1243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Roy S and Mareschal J C 2011 Constraints on the deep thermal structure of the Dharwar craton, India, from heat flow, shear wave velocities, and mantle xenoliths; J. Geophys. Res. 116 B02409, Scholar
  19. Shchipansky A A 2012 Subduction geodynamics in Archean and formation of diamond-bearing lithospheric keels and early continental crust of cratons; Geotectonics (Moscow) 46 122–141, Scholar
  20. Worthington J R, Bradley R H and Zandt G 2013 Distinguishing eclogite from peridotite: EBSD-based calculations of seismic velocities; Geophys. J. Int. 193 489–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Earth and Climate ScienceIndian Institute of Science Education and ResearchPuneIndia
  2. 2.Department of Applied GeophysicsIndian Institute of Technology (Indian School of Mines)DhanbadIndia

Personalised recommendations