Long-term (2005–2012) measurements of near-surface air pollutants at an urban location in the Indo-Gangetic Basin

  • N KishoreEmail author
  • A K Srivastava
  • Hemwati Nandan
  • Chhavi P Pandey
  • S Agrawal
  • N Singh
  • V K Soni
  • D S Bisht
  • S Tiwari
  • Manoj K Srivastava


Simultaneous long-term measurements of near-surface air pollutants at an urban station, New Delhi, were studied during 2005–2012 to understand their distribution on different temporal scales. The annual mean mass concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (\(\hbox {NO}_{2})\), sulphur dioxide (\(\hbox {SO}_{2})\), particulate matter less than \(10\,\upmu \hbox {m}\) (\(\hbox {PM}_{10})\) and suspended particulate matter (SPM) were found to be \(62.0\,{\pm }\,27.6\), \(12.5\,{\pm }\,8.2\), \(253.7\,{\pm }\,134\) and \(529.2\,{\pm }\,213.1\,\upmu \hbox {g}/\hbox {m}^{3}\), respectively. The 24-hr mean mass concentrations of \(\hbox {NO}_{2}\), \(\hbox {PM}_{10}\) and SPM were exceeded on \(\sim \)27%, 87% and 99% days that of total available measurement days to their respective National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) level. However, it never exceeded for \(\hbox {SO}_{2}\), which could be attributed to reduction of sulphur in diesel, use of cleaner fuels such as compressed natural gas, LPG, etc. The mean mass concentrations of measured air pollutants were found to be the highest during the winter/post-monsoon seasons, which are of concern for both climate and human health. The annual mean mass concentrations of \(\hbox {NO}_{2}\), \(\hbox {PM}_{10}\) and SPM showed an increasing trend while \(\hbox {SO}_{2}\) appears to be decreasing since 2008. Air mass cluster analysis showed that north–northwest trajectories accounted for the highest mass concentrations of air pollutants (more prominent in the winter/post-monsoon season); however, the lowest were associated with the southeast trajectory cluster.


Air quality particulate matter NAAQS Indo-Gangetic Basin back trajectory urban environment 



The authors are thankful to the CPCB for providing air quality data and India Meteorological Department for surface meteorological data of New Delhi, which have been used in this study. We are also thankful to NOAA Air Resources Laboratory (ARL) for providing HYSPLIT PC-version model via NK expresses his gratitude to Director, IITM for allowing him to pursue his Ph.D. thesis and providing the necessary infrastructure facilities at IITM (Delhi Branch). The authors are grateful to the anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments and suggestions to improve the paper.

Supplementary material

12040_2019_1070_MOESM1_ESM.doc (402 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (doc 402 KB)


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Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • N Kishore
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • A K Srivastava
    • 1
  • Hemwati Nandan
    • 2
  • Chhavi P Pandey
    • 3
  • S Agrawal
    • 4
  • N Singh
    • 5
  • V K Soni
    • 6
  • D S Bisht
    • 1
  • S Tiwari
    • 1
  • Manoj K Srivastava
    • 7
  1. 1.Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (Branch)New DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Department of PhysicsGurukula Kangri UniversityHaridwarIndia
  3. 3.Wadia Institute of Himalaya GeologyDehradunIndia
  4. 4.Central Pollution Control BoardNew DelhiIndia
  5. 5.Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational SciencesManora Peak, NainitalIndia
  6. 6.India Meteorological DepartmentNew DelhiIndia
  7. 7.Department of GeophysicsBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia

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