Advertisement

Provenance analyses of the heavy-mineral beach sands of the Annaba coast, northeast Algeria, and their consequences for the evaluation of fossil placer deposit

  • Asma Chemam
  • Soraya Hadjzobir
  • Menana Daif
  • Uwe Altenberger
  • Christina Günter
Article
  • 140 Downloads

Abstract

The paper presents the first study of heavy-mineral sand beaches from the Mediterranean coast of Annaba/Algeria. The studied beaches run along the basement outcrops of the Edough massif, which are mainly composed by micaschists, tourmaline-rich quartzo-feldspathic veins, gneisses, skarns and marbles. Sand samples were taken from three localities (Ain Achir, Plage-Militaire and El Nasr). The heavy-mineral fraction comprises between 74 and 91 vol%. The garnets of the beaches are almandine rich and tourmalines vary with respect to their location from schorl to dravite. Tourmaline at Ain Achir and the Plage-Militaire is schorlits, while at El Nasr beach dravite is ubiquitous. The World Shale Average normalised REE of the sands and the basement outcrops reveal: (i) Ain Achir beach: REE pattern of sand and the coastal rocks from the studied beaches reflects a multiple sources; (ii) Plage-Militaire: the sand and the coastal outcrops show similar LREE and a strong enrichment in HREE, suggesting the presence HREE-rich phases found as inclusions in staurolite; (iii) El Nasr: two types of sand patterns are found: one with flat REE pattern similar to the proximal rocks and other one enriched in HREE suggesting a mixed source.

Keywords

Provenance heavy minerals beach sediments fossil placer geochemistry Annaba/Algeria 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We are very grateful to anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments and suggestions that improved this paper. Moreover, we thank the Institute of Earth and Environmental Science, the University of Potsdam for their support in analytical facilities.

References

  1. Ahmed-Said Y, Leake B E and Rogers G 1993 The petrology, geochemistry and petrogenesis of the Edough igneous rocks, Annaba, NE Algeria; J. Afr. Earth Sci. 17(1) 111–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. ANDI 2013 (Agence Nationale de développement de l’Investissement) Invest in Algeria, Wilaya de Annaba.Google Scholar
  3. Bea F and Montero P 1999 Behaviour of accessory phases and redistribution of Zr, REE, Y, Th and U during metamorphism and partial melting of metapelites in the lower crust: An example from the Kinzigite Formation of Ivrea-Verbano, NW Italy; Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 63 1133–1153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Blatt H, Tracy R J and Owens E 2006 Petrology: Igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic, 3rd edn, W.H. Freeman and Co, New York.Google Scholar
  5. Brunnel M, Hammor D, Misseri M, Gleizes G and Bouleton J 1988 Cisaillements synmétamorphes avec transport vers le Nord-Ouest dans le massif cristallin de l’Edough (Est Algérien); C.R. Acad. Sci. 306 1039–1045.Google Scholar
  6. Caby R and Hammor D 1992 Le Massif cristallin de l’Edough (Algérie): Un “Métamorphic Core Complex” d’âge miocène dans les Magrébides; C.R. Acad. Sci. 314 829–835.Google Scholar
  7. Caby R, Hammor D and Delor C 2001 Metamorphic evolution, partial melting and Miocene exhumation of lower crust in the Edough metamorphic core complex, west Mediterranean orogen, eastern Algeria; Tectonophysics 342 239–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Condie K C 1991 Another look at rare earth elements in shales; Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 55 2527–2531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Condie K C, Dengate J and Cullers R L 1995 Behavior of rare elements in a paleo-weathering profile on granodiorite in the Front Range, Colorado, USA; Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 59 279–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Darnley A G, Bjorklund A, Bolviken B, Gustavsson N, Koval P V, Plant J A, Steenfel A, Tauchid M and Xie X 1995 A Global geochemical database for environmental and resource management. Recommendations for international geochemical mapping; Final Report of IGCP Project 259, UNESCO Publishing.Google Scholar
  11. Henry D J and Guidotti C V 1985 Tourmaline as a petrogenetic indicator mineral: An example from the staurolite-grade metapelites of NW Maine; Am. Miner. 70 1–15.Google Scholar
  12. Henry D J, Novák M, Hawthorne F C, Ertl A, Dutrow B L, Uher P and Pezozotta F 2011 Nomenclature of the tourmaline-supergroup minerals; Am. Miner. 96 895–913.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hilly J 1962 Etude geologique du massif de l’Edough et du Cap de Fer (Est-Constantinois); Pub. Serv. de la Carte Géol. Algérie 19 1–408.Google Scholar
  14. Hufty A 2001 Introduction à la climatologie, Les presses de l’Université de Laval, De Böeck Université, 545.Google Scholar
  15. Jiang S Y, Palmer M R, Li Y H and Xue C J 1995 Chemical compositions of tourmaline in the Yindongzi–Tongmugou Pb–Zn deposits, Qinling, China: Implications for hydrothermal ore-forming processes; Miner. Depos. 30 225–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jiang S Y, Palmer M R, McDonald A M, Slack J F and Leitch C H B 1996 Feruvite from the Sullivan Pb–Zn–Ag deposit, British Columbia; Can. Mineral. 34 733–740.Google Scholar
  17. Jung H S, Lim D I, Yang S Y and Yoo H S 2006 Constraints of REE distribution patterns in core sediments and their provenance, Northern East China; Econ. Env. Geol. Sea 39(1) 39–51 (in Korean with English abstract).Google Scholar
  18. Jung H S, Lim D, Choi J Y, Yoo H S, Rho K C and Lee H B 2012 Rare earth element compositions of core sediments from the shelf of the South Sea, Korea: Their controls and origins; Cont. Shelf Res. 48 75–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Leybourne M I and Johannesson K H 2008 Rare earth elements (REE) and yttrium in stream waters, stream sediments, and Fe–Mn oxyhydroxides: Fractionation, speciation, and controls over REE + Y patterns in the surface environment; Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta  72 5962–5983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Locock A J 2008 An Excel spreadsheet to recast analyses of garnet into end-member components, and a synopsis of the crystal chemistry of natural silicate garnets; Comput. Geosci. 34 1769–1780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mange M A and Maurer H F W 1991 Schwerminerale in Farbe; Stuttgart, Enke, 148p.Google Scholar
  22. Mange M A and Wright D T (eds) 2007 Heavy minerals in use; Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1283p.Google Scholar
  23. Morton A C and Hallsworth C 1994 Identifying provenance-specific features of detrital heavy mineral assemblages in sandstones; Sedim. Geol. 90 241–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Nesbitt H W 1979 Mobility and fractionation of rare earth elements during weathering of a granodiorite; Nature 279 206–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Nesbitt H W and Young G W 1996 Petrogenesis of sediment in the absence of chemical weathering effects of abrasion and sorting on bulk composition and mineralogy; Sedimentology 43 341–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. O’Hara M J, Fry N and Prichard H M 2001 Minor phases as carriers of trace elements in non-modal crystal-liquid separation processes II: Illustrations and bearing on behaviour of REE, U, Th and the PGE in igneous processes; J. Petrol. 42 1887–1910.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Oularbi A and Zeghiche A 2009 Sensibilité à l’érosion du massif cristallophyllien de l’Edough (Nord-Est Algérien); Synthèse 20 58–72.Google Scholar
  28. Piper D Z 1974 Rare earths in the sedimentary cycle: A summary; Chem. Geol. 4 285–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Piper D Z and Bau M 2013 Normalized rare earth elements in water, sediments, and wine: Identifying sources and environmental redox conditions; Am. J. Analyt. Chem.  4(10A) 69–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sano Y, Terada K and Fukuoka T 2002 High mass resolution ion microprobe analysis of rare earth elements in silicate glass, apatite and zircon: Lack of matrix dependency; Chem. Geol.  184 217–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Whitney D L and Evans B W 2010 Abbreviations for names of rock-forming minerals; Am. Miner.  95(1) 185–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Yavuz F, Yavuz V and Sasmaz A 2006 WinClastour – A visual basic program for tourmaline formula recalculation and classification; Comput. Geosci. 32 1156–1168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Asma Chemam
    • 1
  • Soraya Hadjzobir
    • 2
  • Menana Daif
    • 1
  • Uwe Altenberger
    • 3
  • Christina Günter
    • 3
  1. 1.Laboratory of LGRNBadji-Mokhtar/Annaba UniversityAnnabaAlgeria
  2. 2.Laboratory of Soils and Sustainable DevelopmentBadji-Mokhtar/Annaba UniversityAnnabaAlgeria
  3. 3.Institute of Earth and Environmental ScienceUniversity of PotsdamPotsdam-GolmGermany

Personalised recommendations