Advertisement

Interaction study of clay-bearing amphibolite–crude oil–saline water: Molecular level implications for enhanced oil recovery during low saline water flooding

  • Saheli Sanyal
  • Kumar Abhishek Singh
  • Harshil Parekh
  • Vishrut Chokshi
  • Uttam K Bhui
Article
  • 56 Downloads

Abstract

Low saline water flooding (LSWF) had proved to be an efficient method for enhanced oil recovery in clay-bearing hydrocarbon reservoirs, but the interaction mechanisms among in-situ rocks – fluids and injection fluids within the reservoir – are not yet known properly. Understanding the molecular level interaction among these components is critical for designing and field scale implementation of LSWF in clay-bearing crystalline reservoir rocks, which is very limited in the existing literature. A weathered amphibolite rock and one dead crude oil from the Bakrol field (Cambay basin, India) have been used in this study. The presence of clay minerals in the weathered amphibolite rock was observed using a polarising microscope and characterised by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) techniques. The crude oil and its fractionated SARA components have been extensively studied by spectroscopic techniques for their characterisation. The interaction study among the rock powder, hydrocarbon crude oil and saline water has been performed in the present work for gaining better insight for designing the injection fluid for LSWF. The weathered amphibolite rock powder was mixed with the dead crude oil and kept for 30 days in room temperature (T) and pressure (P) for proper interaction. The XRD, FTIR and cation exchange capacity results clearly demonstrated the incorporation of crude oil components in the interlayer surfaces of clay minerals. The oil removal efficiency, from the oil-treated rock powder of three saline water samples having NaCl concentration of 3000, 5000 and 8000 ppm, was investigated using the UV–Vis and fluorescence spectroscopies. The low saline NaCl water is capable of removing the maximum amount of polar components from the oil-treated rock powder. These molecular level insights are valuable for designing effective injection fluid for enhancing the oil recovery from the clay-rich crystalline reservoir rock.

Keywords

Low saline water flooding (LSWF) clay-bearing amphibolite polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) fused aromatic ring (FAR) UV–Vis spectroscopy fluorescence spectroscopy 

Notes

Acknowledgements

SS thanks Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University (PDPU) for her research fellowship. The Reservoir Characterization Laboratory (RCL for UV–Vis and Fluorescence data) and the Petroleum Engineering Laboratory (for sample preparation and experimentation) of the School of Petroleum Technology, PDPU, are greatly acknowledged. The authors acknowledge the support of the Solar Research Development Centre (SRDC) and the Chemistry Laboratory of PDPU for providing the XRD and FTIR data support. The authors would like to thank Selan Exploration Technology Ltd. for providing the crude oil used in this research. The authors thank Mr. Bhavesh Mehta for his support and assistance during the laboratory work.

References

  1. Adams J J 2014 Asphaltene adsorption, a literature review; Energy Fuels 28 2831–2856.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Austad T 2013 Enhanced Oil Recovery Field Case Studies; Elsevier.Google Scholar
  3. Austad T, Rezaeidoust A and Puntervold T 2010 Chemical mechanism of low salinity water flooding in sandstone reservoirs; In: SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Society of Petroleum Engineers, Aberdeen, Scotland, pp. 1–18.Google Scholar
  4. Barnaji M J, Pourafshary P and Rasaie M R 2016 Visual investigation of the effects of clay minerals on enhancement of oil recovery by low salinity water flooding; Fuel 184 826–835.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Boles J R and Franks S G 1979 Clay diagenesis in Wilcox sandstones of southwest Texas: Implications of Smectite diagenesis on sandstone cementation; J. Sediment. Res. 49 55–70.Google Scholar
  6. Brindley G and Brown G 1980 Crystal Structures of Clay Minerals and Their Identification; Mineralogical Society, London, 5.Google Scholar
  7. Clementz D 1982 Alteration of Rock Properties by Adsorption of Petroleum Heavy Ends: Implications for Enhanced Oil Recovery; Society of Petroleum Engineers, USA.Google Scholar
  8. Cosultchi A, Cordova I, Valenzuela M A, Acosta D R, Bosch P and Lara V H 2005 Adsorption of crude oil on Na\(^{+}\)-Montmorillonite; Energy Fuels 105 1417–1424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dean K, James L and McAtee J 1986 Asphaltene adsorption on clay; Appl. Clay Sci. 1 313–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Evdokimov I N, Eliseev N Y and Akhmetov B R 2003 Assembly of asphaltene molecular aggregates as studied by near-UV/visible spectroscopy I. Structure of the absorbance spectrum; J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 37 135–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fathi S J 2012 Water-based enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by ‘Smart Water’ in carbonate reservoirs; In: Proceedings of the SPE EOR Conference at Oil and Gas, West Asia.Google Scholar
  12. Fogden A 2012 Removal of crude oil from kaolinite by water flushing at varying salinity and pH; Colloids Surf. A 402 13–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gargiulo V, Apicella B, Alfè M, Russo C, Stanzione F, Tregrossi A and Ciajolo A 2015 Structural characterization of large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Part 1: The case of coal Tar pitch and Naphthalene-derived pitch; Energy Fuels 29 5714–5722.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Groenzin H and Mullins O C 2000 Molecular size and structure of asphaltenes from various sources; Energy Fuels 14 677–684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ikhtiyarova G A, Ozcan A S, Gok O and Ozcan A 2012 Characterization of natural- and organo-bentonite by XRD, SEM, FT-IR and thermal analysis techniques and its adsorption behaviour in aqueous solutions; Clay Miner. 47 31–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jackson M D, Vinogradov J, Hamon G and Chamerois M 2016 Evidence, mechanisms and improved understanding of controlled salinity waterflooding part 1: Sandstones; Fuel 185 772–793.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kasha M 1960 Paths of molecular excitation; In: Proceedings of a Symposium Sponsored by the US Atomic Energy Commission, New York.Google Scholar
  18. Katika K, Ahkami M, Fosbøl P L, Halim A Y, Shapiro A, Thomsen K and Fabricius I L 2016 Comparative analysis of experimental methods for quantification of small amounts of oil in water; J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 147 459–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kumar A, Pendkar N and Sangeeta 2002 Delineation and evaluation of basaltic Deccan basement reservoir of Padra field, Cambay Basin, India – A field study; In: SPWLA 43rd Annual Logging Symposium.Google Scholar
  20. Lagaly G, Ogawa M and Dekany I 2006 Clay mineral organic interactions; In: Handbook of Clay Science (eds) Bergaya F, Theng B K G and Lagaly G, Amsterdam, Elsevier 1 309–377.Google Scholar
  21. Lager A, Webb K J, Black C J J, Singleton M and Sorbie K S 2008 Low salinity oil recovery – An experimental investigation; Petrophysics 49 28–35.Google Scholar
  22. Lambert P, Goldthorp M, Fieldhouse B, Wang Z, Fingas M, Pearson L and Collazzi E 2003 Field fluorometers as dispersed oil-in-water monitors; J. Hazard. Mater. 102 57–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lashkarbolooki M, Riazi M, Hajibagheri F and Ayatollahi S 2016 Low salinity injection into asphaltenic-carbonate oil reservoir, mechanistical study; J. Mol. Liq. 216 377–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lee S Y, Webb K J, Collins I R, Lager A, Clarke S M, Sullivan M O and Wang X 2010 Low salinity oil recovery – Increasing understanding of the underlying mechanisms; In: SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium.Google Scholar
  25. Ligthelm D J, Gronsveld J, Hofman J P, Brussee N J, Marcelis F and van der Linde H A 2009 Novel waterflooding strategy by manipulation of injection brine composition; In: SPE EUROPEC/EAGE Annual Conference and Exhibition.Google Scholar
  26. Liu H, Yuan P, Quin Z, Tan D, Zhu J and He H 2013 Thermal degradation of organic matter in the interlayer clay – Organic complex: A TG-FTIR study on a montmorillonite/12-aminoluric acid system; Appl. Clay Sci. 80–81 398–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mcguire P L L, Chatham J R R, Paskvan F K K, Sommer D M M and Carini F H 2005 Low salinity oil recovery: An exciting new EOR opportunity for Alaska’s north slope; In: SPE Western Regional Meeting.Google Scholar
  28. Meléndez L V, Adriana L, Orrego-Ruiz J A, Pachón Z and Mejía-Ospino E 2012 Prediction of the SARA analysis of Colombian crude oils using ATR–FTIR spectroscopy and chemometric methods; J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 90–91 56–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Merola M C, Carotenuto C, Gargiulo V, Stanzione F, Ciajolo A and Minale M 2016 Chemical–physical analysis of rheologically different samples of a heavy crude oil; Fuel Process. Technol. 148 236–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Morrow N and Buckley J 2011 Improved oil recovery by low-salinity waterflooding; J. Petrol. Tech. 63 106–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Murgich J and Rodriguez J M 1998 Interatomic interactions in the adsorption of asphaltenes and resins on kaolinite calculated by molecular dynamics; Energy Fuels 12 339–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Nasralla R A and Nasr-El-Din H A 2014 Double-Layer Expansion: Is it a Primary Mechanism of Improved Oil Recovery by Low-Salinity Waterflooding?; SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering, USA.Google Scholar
  33. Nasralla R A, Alotaibi M B and Nasr-El-Din H A 2011 Efficiency of oil recovery by low salinity water flooding in sandstone reservoirs; In: SPE Western North American Region Meeting.Google Scholar
  34. Ozgen S and Yildiz A 2010 Application of Box–Behnken design to modeling the effect of Smectite content on swelling to hydrocyclone processing of bentonites with various geologic properties; Clays Clay Miner. 58 431–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Pantoja P A, Juan L, Le Roux G A, Quina F H and Nascimento C A 2011 Prediction of crude oil properties and chemical composition by means of steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence; Energy Fuels  25 3598–3604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Pernyeszi T, Patzkó A, Berkesi O and Dékány I 1998 Asphaltene adsortion on clays and crude oil reservoir rocks; Colloids Surf. A  173 373–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Proust D, Caillaud J and Fontaine C 2006 Clay minerals in early amphibole weathering: Tri- to dioctahedral sequence as a function of crystallization sites in the amphibole; Clay Miner. 54 351–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Pu H, Xie X, Yin P and Morrow N 2010 Low salinity waterflooding and mineral dissolution; In: SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition.Google Scholar
  39. Rezaeidoust A, Puntervold T, Strand S and Austad T 2009 Smart water as wettability modifier in carbonate and sandstone: A discussion of similarities/differences in the chemical mechanisms; Energy Fuels 23 4479–4485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ryder A G 2005 Analysis of crude petroleum oils using fluorescence spectroscopy; In: Reviews in Fluorescence (eds) Geddes C D and Lakowicz J R, Springer, USA, 2 169–198.Google Scholar
  41. Saikia B J and Parthasarathy G 2010 Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic characterization of Kaolinite from Assam and Meghalaya, northeastern India; J. Mod. Phys. 1 206–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Sanyal S, Bhui U K, Kumar S S and Balaga D 2017 Designing injection water for enhancing oil recovery from Kaolinite Laden hydrocarbon reservoirs: A spectroscopic approach for understanding molecular level interaction during saline water flooding; Energy Fuels 31 11,627–11,639.Google Scholar
  43. Sheng J J 2014 Critical review of low-salinity waterflooding; J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 120 216–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Shi Q, Hou D, Chung K H, Xu C, Zhao S and Zhang Y 2010 Characterization of Heteroatom compounds in a crude oil and its saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes (SARA) and non-basic nitrogen fractions analyzed by negative-ion electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry; Energy Fuels 20 2545–2553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sugahara Y, Satokawa S, Kuroda K and Kato C 1990 Preparation of a kaolinite–polyacrylamide intercalation compound; Clay Miner. 38 137–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Tang G Q and Morrow N R 1999 Influence of brine composition and fines migration on crude oil/brine/rock interactions and oil recovery; J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 24 99–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Tyagi B, Chudasama C D and Jasra R V 2006 Determination of structural modification in acid activated montmorillonite clay by FT-IR spectroscopy; Spectrochim. Acta A 64 273–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Underwood T, Erastova V, Cubillas P and Greenwell H C 2015 Molecular dynamic simulations of montmorillonite–organic interactions under varying salinity: An insight into enhanced oil recovery; J. Phys. Chem. 119 7282–7294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Velde B and Meunier A 2008 Clay mineral formation in weathered rocks: Water/rock interaction; In: The Origin of Clay Minerals in Soils and Weathered Rocks, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 143–239.Google Scholar
  50. Worasith N, Goodman B A, Neampan J and Jeyachoke N 2011 Characterization of modified kaolin from the Ranong deposit Thailand by XRD, XRF, SEM, FTIR and EPR techniques; Clay Miner. 46 539–559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Worden R H and Morad S 2003 Clay minerals in sandstones: Controls on formation; Int. Assoc. Sedimentol. Spec. Publ. 34 3–41.Google Scholar
  52. Xie Q, Liu Y, Wu J and Liu Q 2014 Ions tuning water flooding experiments and interpretation by thermodynamics of wettability; J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 124 350–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Yoon S, Bhatt S D, Lee W, Lee H Y, Jeong S Y, Baeg J and Lee C W 2009 Separation and characterization of bitumen from Athabasca oil sand; Korean J. Chem. Eng. 26 64–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Yousef A A, Al-saleh S, Al-kaabi A, Al-jawfi M and Aramco S 2010 Laboratory investigation of novel oil recovery method for carbonate reservoirs; In: Canadian Unconventional Resources & International Petroleum Conferences.Google Scholar
  55. Zhang P and Austad T 2006 Wettability and oil recovery from carbonates: Effects of temperature and potential determining ions; Colloids Surf. A 279 179–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Zhao X, Wang Y, Ye Z, Borthwick A G L and Ni J 2006 Oil field wastewater treatment in biological aerated filter by immobilized microorganisms; Process Biochem.  41 1475–1483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Saheli Sanyal
    • 1
  • Kumar Abhishek Singh
    • 1
  • Harshil Parekh
    • 1
  • Vishrut Chokshi
    • 1
  • Uttam K Bhui
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Petroleum TechnologyPandit Deendayal Petroleum UniversityGandhinagarIndia

Personalised recommendations