Advertisement

Variations of trace gases over the Bay of Bengal during the summer monsoon

  • I A GirachEmail author
  • Narendra Ojha
  • Prabha R Nair
  • Yogesh K Tiwari
  • K Ravi Kumar
Article
  • 123 Downloads

Abstract

In situ measurements of near-surface ozone (\(\hbox {O}_{3})\), carbon monoxide (CO), and methane (\(\hbox {CH}_{4})\) were carried out over the Bay of Bengal (BoB) as a part of the Continental Tropical Convergence Zone (CTCZ) campaign during the summer monsoon season of 2009. \(\hbox {O}_{3}\), CO and \(\hbox {CH}_{4}\) mixing ratios varied in the ranges of 8–54 ppbv, 50–200 ppbv and 1.57–2.15 ppmv, respectively during 16 July–17 August 2009. The spatial distribution of mean tropospheric \(\hbox {O}_{3}\) from satellite retrievals is found to be similar to that in surface \(\hbox {O}_{3}\) observations, with higher levels over coastal and northern BoB as compared to central BoB. The comparison of in situ measurements with the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition & Climate (MACC) global reanalysis shows that MACC simulations reproduce the observations with small mean biases of 1.6 ppbv, –2.6 ppbv and 0.07 ppmv for \(\hbox {O}_{3}\), CO and \(\hbox {CH}_{4}\), respectively. The analysis of diurnal variation of \(\hbox {O}_{3}\) based on observations and the simulations from Weather Research and Forecasting coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) at a stationary point over the BoB did not show a net photochemical build up during daytime. Satellite retrievals show limitations in capturing \(\hbox {CH}_{4}\) variations as measured by in situ sample analysis highlighting the need of more shipborne in situ measurements of trace gases over this region during monsoon.

Keywords

Ozone carbon monoxide methane monsoon Bay of Bengal MACC reanalysis 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank CTCZ and ICRP organizers for providing the opportunity to participate in the CTCZ experiment. We are thankful to the Director, National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research (NCAOR), Goa for providing shipboard facilities. The AIRS \(\hbox {CH}_{4}\) mixing ratios were obtained from website http://mirador.gsfc.nasa.gov/. The MACC reanalysis data were obtained from http://apps.ecmwf.int/datasets/data/macc-reanalysis/ and we greatly acknowledge MACC Reanalysis project. The Dutch-Finnish-built OMI is part of the NASA EOS Aura satellite payload. The OMI project is managed by NIVR and KNMI in the Netherlands. The tropospheric ozone data were obtained from https://acd-ext.gsfc.nasa.gov/Data_services/cloud_slice/. The comments and suggestions from two anonymous reviewers are gratefully acknowledged.

References

  1. Ali K, Beig G, Chate D M, Momin G A, Sahu S K and Safai, P D 2009 Sink mechanism for significantly low level of ozone over the Arabian Sea during monsoon; J. Geophys. Res. 114 D17306,  https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JD011256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chand D, Modh K S, Naja M, Venkataramani S and Lal S 2001 Latitudinal trends in \(\text{ O }_{3}\), CO, \(\text{ CH }_{4}\), and \(\text{ SF }_{6}\) over the Indian Ocean during the INDOEX IFP-1999 ship cruise; Curr. Sci80 100–104.Google Scholar
  3. Chand D, Lal S and Naja M 2003 Variations of ozone in the marine boundary layer over the Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean during the 1998 and 1999 INDOEX campaigns; J. Geophys. Res. 108(D6) 4190,  https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JD001589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. David L M, Girach I A and Nair P R 2011 Distribution of ozone and its precursors over Bay of Bengal during winter 2009: Role of meteorology; Ann. Geophys29 1613–1627,  https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-29-1613-2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Girach I A and Nair P R 2014 On the vertical distribution of carbon monoxide over Bay of Bengal during winter: Role of water vapour and vertical updrafts; J. Atmos.Solar-Terrestrial Phys117 31–47,  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jastp.2014.05.003.
  6. Girach I A, Ojha N, Nair P R, Pozzer A, Tiwari Y K, RaviKumar K and Lelieveld J 2017 Variations in \(\text{ O }_{3}\), CO, and \(\text{ CH }_{4}\) over the Bay of Bengal during the summer monsoon season: Shipborne measurements and model simulations; Atmos. Chem. Phys17 257–275,  https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-257-2017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Inness A, Baier F, Benedetti A, Bouarar I, Chabrillat S, Clark H, Clerbaux C, Coheur P, Engelen R J, Errera Q, Flemming J, George M, Granier C, Hadji-Lazaro J, Huijnen V, Hurtmans D, Jones L, Kaiser J W, Kapsomenakis J, Lefever K, Leitão J, Razinger M, Richter A, Schultz M G, Simmons A J, Suttie M, Stein O, Thépaut J-N, Thouret V, Vrekoussis M, Zerefos C and the MACC team 2013 The MACC reanalysis: An 8 yr data set of atmospheric composition; Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13 4073–4109,  https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-4073-2013.
  8. IPCC-AR5 2013 Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.Google Scholar
  9. Katragkou E, Zanis P, Tsikerdekis A, Kapsomenakis J, Melas D, Eskes H, Flemming J, Huijnen V, Inness A, Schultz M G, Stein O and Zerefos C S 2015 Evaluation of near surface ozone over Europe from the MACC reanalysis; Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss8 1077–1115,  https://doi.org/10.5194/gmdd-8-1077-2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Lal S, Naja M and Jayaraman A 1998 Ozone in the marine boundary layer over the tropical Indian Ocean; J. Geophys. Res103(D15) 18907–18917,  https://doi.org/10.1029/98JD01566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Lal S and Lawrence M G 2001 Elevated mixing ratios of surface ozone over the Arabian Sea; Geophys. Res. Lett28 1487–1490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Lal S, Chand D, Sahu L K, Venkataramani S, Brasseur G and Schultz M G 2006 High levels of ozone and related gases over the Bay of Bengal during winter and early spring of 2001; Atmos. Environ40 1633–1644.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lal S, Sahu L K and Venkataramani S 2007 Impact of transport from the surrounding continental regions on the distributions of ozone and related trace gases over the Bay of Bengal during February 2003; J. Geophys. Res112 D14302,  https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JD008023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lawrence M G and Lelieveld J 2010 Atmospheric pollutant outflow from southern Asia: a review; Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10 11017–11096,  https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-11017-2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Liu S C, McFarland M, Kley D, Zafiriou O and Huebert B 1983 Tropospheric NOx and \(\text{ O }_{3}\) budgets in the equatorial Pacific; J. Geophys. Res. 88 1360–1368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Mallik C, Lal S, Venkataramani S, Naja M and Ojha N 2013 Variability in ozone and its precursors over the Bay of Bengal during post monsoon: Transport and emission effects; J. Geophys. Res. Atmos118,  https://doi.org/10.1002/jgrd.50764.
  17. Naja M, Chand D. Sahu L and Lal S 2004 Trace gases over marine regions around India; Ind. J. Mar. Sci. 33(1) 95–106.Google Scholar
  18. Nair P R, David L M, Girach I A and George S K 2011 Ozone in the marine boundary layer of Bay of Bengal during post-winter period: Spatial pattern and role of meteorology; Atmos. Environ45 4671–4681,  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.05.040.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Nair P R, David L M, Aryasree S and George S K 2013 Distribution of ozone in the marine boundary layer of Arabian Sea prior to monsoon: Prevailing airmass and effect of aerosols; Atmos. Environ. 74 18–28,  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2013.02.049.
  20. Ojha N, Pozzer A, Rauthe-Schöch A, Baker A K, Yoon J, Brenninkmeijer C A M and Lelieveld J 2016 Ozone and carbon monoxide over India during the summer monsoon: regional emissions and transport; Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16 3013–3032,  https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-3013-2016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ravikumar K, Tiwari Y K, Valsala V and Murtugudde R 2014 On understanding of land–ocean CO\(_{2}\) contrast over Bay of Bengal: A case study during 2009 summer monsoon; Environ. Sci. Poll. Res21-7 5066–5075,  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-013-2386-2.Google Scholar
  22. Sahu L K, Lal S and Venkataramani S 2006 Distributions of \(\text{ O }_{3}\), CO and hydrocarbons over the Bay of Bengal: A study to assess the role of transport from southern India and marine regions during September–October 2002 Atmos. Atmos. Environ. 40 4633–4645,  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.02.037.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Seinfeld J H and Pandis S N 2006 Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: from air pollution to climate change, 2nd edn, Wiley-Interscience publication, USA.Google Scholar
  24. Srivastava S, Lal S, Venkataramani S, Gupta S and Sheel V 2012 Surface distributions of \(\text{ O }_{3}\), CO and hydrocarbons over the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea during pre-monsoon season; Atmos. Environ47 459–467,  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.10.02.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Sharma A, Ojha N, Pozzer A, Mar K A, Beig G, Lelieveld J and Gunthe S S 2016 WRF-Chem simulated surface ozone over South Asia during the pre-monsoon: Effects of emission inventories and chemical mechanisms; Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,  https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2016-1083.
  26. Ziemke J R, Chandra S, Duncan B N, Froidevaux L, Bhartia P K, Levelt P F and Waters J W 2006 Tropospheric ozone determined from AURA OMI and MLS: Evaluation of measurements and comparison with the Global Modeling Initiative’s Chemical Transport Model; J. Geophys. Res. 111 D19303,  https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JD007089.

Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • I A Girach
    • 1
    Email author
  • Narendra Ojha
    • 2
  • Prabha R Nair
    • 1
  • Yogesh K Tiwari
    • 3
  • K Ravi Kumar
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Space Physics LaboratoryVikram Sarabhai Space CentreThiruvananthapuramIndia
  2. 2.Department of Atmospheric ChemistryMax Planck Institute for ChemistryMainzGermany
  3. 3.Indian Institute of Tropical MeteorologyPuneIndia
  4. 4.National Institute of Polar ResearchTachikawaJapan
  5. 5.Department of Environmental Geochemical Cycle ResearchJAMSTECYokohamaJapan

Personalised recommendations