Journal of Earth System Science

, Volume 123, Issue 7, pp 1693–1703 | Cite as

‘Indicator’ carbonaceous phyllite/graphitic schist in the Archean Kundarkocha gold deposit, Singhbhum orogenic belt, eastern India: Implications for gold mineralization vis-a-vis organic matter

  • P R Sahoo
  • A S Venkatesh


Carbonaceous rocks in the form of graphitic schist and carbonaceous phyllite are the major host rocks of the gold mineralization in Kundarkocha gold deposit of the Precambrian Singhbhum orogenic belt in eastern India. The detection of organic carbon, essentially in the carbonaceous phyllite and graphitized schist within the Precambrian terrain, is noted from this deposit. A very close relationship exists between gold mineralization and ubiquitous carbonaceous rocks containing organic carbon that seems to play a vital role in the deposition of gold in a Precambrian terrain in India and important metallogenetic implications for such type of deposits elsewhere. However, the role played by organic matter in a Precambrian gold deposit is debatable and the mechanism of precipitation of gold and other metals by organic carbon has been reported elsewhere. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results and total organic carbon (TOC) values suggest that at least part of the organic material acted as a possible source for the reduction that played a significant role in the precipitation of gold. Lithological, electron probe analysis (EPMA), fluid inclusions associated with gold mineralization, Total Carbon (TC), TOC and FTIR results suggest that the gold mineralization is spatially and genetically associated with graphitic schist, carbonaceous phyllite/shale that are constituted of immature organic carbon or kerogen. Nano-scale gold inclusions along with free milling gold are associated with sulfide mineral phases present within the carbonaceous host rocks as well as in mineralized quartz-carbonate veins. Deposition of gold could have been facilitated due to the organic redox reactions and the graphitic schist and carbonaceous phyllite zone may be considered as the indicator zone.


Graphitic schist organic carbon gold FTIR archean Singhbhum orogenic belt 



The authors would like to thank the personnel of Manmohan Mineral Industries Pvt. Ltd., for giving access to the mine, permission to collect samples and providing facilities. They thank Prof Ashish Sarkar (for FTIR analyses), Prof. V K Saxena (for TC and TOC analyses) of ISM, Prof. H S Pandalai (IIT/B) and Dr K L Pruseth (IIT/R) for Raman Spectroscopic analysis and EPMA, respectively. Financial assistance in the form of Indian School of Mines Ph.D. research fellowship to P R Sahoo is gratefully acknowledged. The authors wish to thank the Director of ISM for the facilities. They thank Dr N V Chalapathi Rao, for his coordination, support extended throughout the review process and helpful suggestions. Authors are also thankful to the reviewers for their constructive comments and useful suggestions.


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Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Applied GeologyIndian School of MinesDhanbadIndia

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