Journal of Earth System Science

, Volume 123, Issue 5, pp 959–987 | Cite as

Geochemical constraints on the evolution of mafic and felsic rocks in the Bathani volcanic and volcano-sedimentary sequence of Chotanagpur Granite Gneiss Complex

  • Ashima Saikia
  • Bibhuti Gogoi
  • Mansoor Ahmad
  • Talat Ahmad


The Bathani volcanic and volcano-sedimentary (BVS) sequence is a volcanic and volcano-sedimentary sequence, best exposed near Bathani village in Gaya district of Bihar. It is located in the northern fringe of the Chotanagpur Granite Gneiss Complex (CGGC). The volcano-sedimentary unit comprises of garnet-mica schist, rhyolite, tuff, banded iron formation (BIF) and chert bands with carbonate rocks as enclaves within the rhyolite and the differentiated volcanic sequence comprises of rhyolite, andesite, pillow basalt, massive basalt, tuff and mafic pyroclasts. Emplacement of diverse felsic and mafic rocks together testifies for a multi-stage and multi-source magmatism for the area. The presence of pillow basalt marks the eruption of these rocks in a subaqueous environment. Intermittent eruption of mafic and felsic magmas resulted in the formation of rhyolite, mafic pyroclasts, and tuff. Mixing and mingling of the felsic and mafic magmas resulted in the hybrid rock andesite. Granites are emplaced later, cross-cutting the volcanic sequence and are probably products of fractional crystallization of basaltic magma. The present work characterizes the geochemical characteristics of the magmatic rocks comprising of basalt, andesite, rhyolite, tuff, and granite of the area. Tholeiitic trend for basalt and calc-alkaline affinities of andesite, rhyolite and granite is consistent with their generation in an island arc, subduction related setting. The rocks of the BVS sequence probably mark the collision of the northern and southern Indian blocks during Proterozoic period. The explosive submarine volcanism may be related to culmination of the collision of the aforementioned blocks during the Neoproterozoic (1.0 Ga) as the Grenvillian metamorphism is well established in various parts of CGGC.


Chotanagpur Granite Gneiss Complex (CGGC) Munger–Rajgir belt Bathani volcanic and volcano-sedimentary (BVS) sequence volcanic arc subduction magma mixing 



Ashima Saikia acknowledges the CSIR grant vide Project no. 24(0317)/12/EMR-II. Authors extend their gratitude to the anonymous reviewers for their suggestions, which have improved the manuscript considerably.


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Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ashima Saikia
    • 1
  • Bibhuti Gogoi
    • 1
  • Mansoor Ahmad
    • 2
  • Talat Ahmad
    • 1
  1. 1.Chatra Marg, Department of GeologyUniversity of DelhiDelhiIndia
  2. 2.RajabazarPatnaIndia

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