Application of \(\hbox {SiO}_{{2}}\) nanoparticles as an efficient catalyst to develop syntheses of perimidines and tetraketones

  • Heshmatollah AlinezhadEmail author
  • Armin Ahmadi
  • Parvin Hajiabbasi
Regular Article


In this paper, we explore the catalytic activity of \(\hbox {SiO}_{{2}}\) nanoparticles (NPs) as an eco-friendly, efficient and reusable catalyst in the synthesis of 2,3-dihydro-1H-perimidines as well as tetraketones. For tetraketones syntheses, a simple tandem Knoevenagel condensation following Michael addition procedure is performed by the reaction between benzaldehydes and 5,5-dimethyl-1,3-cyclohexanediones under solvent-free condition using \(\hbox {SiO}_{{2}}\) NPs as an efficient solid catalyst. In addition, for 2,3-dihydro-1H-perimidines syntheses, cyclocondensation of various aldehydes with 1,8-diaminonaphthalene is achieved under solvent-free condition using \(\hbox {SiO}_{{2}}\) NPs as a catalyst at room temperature. The results showed catalytic enhancement in both synthetic procedures. In this work, 4-(2,3-dihydro-1H-perimidin-2-yl)benzonitrile and 2-(pyridin-4-yl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-perimidine are synthesized as new compounds. Also, reusability study of \(\hbox {SiO}_{{2}}\) NPs was done to ensure its applicability as a recycled catalyst in this work.

Graphical Abstract

  The catalytic activity of \(\hbox {SiO}_{{2}}\) nanoparticles (NPs) as an eco-friendly, efficient and reusable catalyst in the synthesis of 2,3-dihydro-1H-perimidines as well as tetraketones is explored. For tetraketones syntheses, a simple tandem Knoevenagel condensation following Michael addition procedure is performed by the reaction between benzaldehydes and 5,5-dimethyl-1,3-cyclohexanediones under solvent-free condition using \(\hbox {SiO}_{{2}}\) NPs as an efficient solid catalyst.


2,3-Dihydro-1H-perimidines green synthesis nano-\(\hbox {SiO}_{{2}}\) solid catalyst solvent-free tetraketone derivatives 



We gratefully acknowledge the financial support from the Research Council of the University of Mazandaran.

Supplementary material

12039_2019_1607_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (1.9 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (pdf 1929 KB)


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Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Heshmatollah Alinezhad
    • 1
    Email author
  • Armin Ahmadi
    • 1
  • Parvin Hajiabbasi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of ChemistryUniversity of MazandaranBabolsarIran

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