Advertisement

Journal of Chemical Sciences

, Volume 121, Issue 5, pp 745–756 | Cite as

Structure transitions between copper-sulphate and copper-chloride UPD phases on Au(111)

  • Ilya V. Pobelov
  • Gábor Nagy
  • Thomas Wandlowski
Article

Abstract

Structure transitions between copper UPD adlayers on Au(111)-(1 × 1) in sulfuric acid and chloride containing electrolyte were investigated by in situ scanning tunnelling microscopy. We demonstrate that co-adsorbed sulphate ions in the (√3 × √3)R30° UPD adlayer are replaced by chloride ions and, depending on the halide coverage, a commensurate (2 × 2) or a slightly distorted (5 × 5)-like Cu-Cl UPD adlayer are formed. The stability ranges of these phases are controlled both by the electrode potential and the Cl concentration. Phase transitions between the three UPD phases were monitored by time-resolved in situ STM. The observed structure details were attributed to mechanisms based on two-dimensional nucleation and growth processes.

Keywords

Electrochemical and time-resolved STM Cu UPD co-adsorption two-dimensional phase transitions 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Liu H Y, Fan F R F, Lin C W and Bard A J 1986 J. Am. Chem. Soc. 108 3838CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lustenberger P, Rohrer H, Christoph R and Siegenthaler H 1988 J. Electroanal. Chem. 243 225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wiechers J, Twomey T, Kolb D M and Behm R J 1988 J. Electroanal. Chem. 248 451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gewirth A A and Niece B K 1997 Chem. Rev. 97 1129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Itaya K 1998 Prog. Surf. Sci. 58 121Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kolb D M 2001 Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 40 1162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kolb D M 2002 Surf. Sci. 500 722CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wang D and Wan L-J 2007 J. Phys. Chem. C111 16109Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kolb D M 1978 In Advances in electrochemistry and electrochemical engineering (eds) H Gerischer and C W Tobias (New York: Wiley) vol. 11, p. 127Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Budevski E, Staikov G and Lorenz W J 1996 Electrochemical phase formation and growth (Weinheim: VCH)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Vereecken P M, Binstead R A, Deligianni H and Andricacos P C 2005 IBM J. Res. Dev. 49 3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Staikov G (ed.) 2008 Electrocrystallization and nanotechnology (Weinheim: Wiley-VCH)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Schneeweiss M and Kolb D 1999 Phys. Stat. Sol. A173 51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kolb D 2000 Electrochim. Acta 45 2387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Herrero E, Buller L J and Abruña H D 2001 Chem. Rev. 101 1897CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wandlowski T 2002 in Encyclopedia of electrochemistry (eds) M Urbakh and M Gileadi (Weinheim: Wiley-VCH) vol. 1, p. 383Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Schultze J W and Dickertmann D 1976 Surf. Sci. 54 489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Omar I H, Pauling H J and Juttner K J 1993 Electrochem. Soc. 140 2187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Shi Z and Lipkowski J 1994 J. Electroanal. Chem. 364 289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Shi Z and Lipkowski J 1994 J. Electroanal. Chem. 365 303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hölzle M H, Retter U and Kolb D M 1994 J. Electroanal. Chem. 371 101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Shi Z, Wu S and Lipkowski J 1995 Electrochim. Acta 40 9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hölzle M H, Zwing V and Kolb D M 1995 Electrochim. Acta 40 1237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wu S, Lipkowski J, Tyliszczak T and Hitchcock A P 1995 Prog. Surf. Sci. 50 227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Palomar-Pardavé M, González I and Batina N J 2000 Phys. Chem. B104 3545Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ataka K, Nishina G, Cai W-B, Sun S-G and Osawa M 2000 Electrochem. Commun. 2 417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Danilov A, Molodkina E, Rudnev A, Polukarov Y M and Feliu J 2005 Electrochim. Acta 50 5032CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Borges G L, Kanazawa K K, Gordon J G II, Ashley K and Richer J 1994 J. Electroanal. Chem. 364 281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Gordon J G, Melroy O R and Toney M F 1995 Electrochim. Acta 40 3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Watanabe M, Uchida H, Miura M and Ikeda N 1995 J. Electroanal. Chem. 384 191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Uchida H, Ikeda N and Watanabe M 1997 J. Electroanal. Chem. 424 5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Uchida H, Hiei M and Watanabe M 1998 J. Electroanal. Chem. 452 97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Nakai Y, Zei M S, Kolb D M and Lehmpfuhl G 1984 Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 88 340Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Zei M S, Qiao G, Lehmpfuhl G and Kolb D M 1987 Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 91 349Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Blum L, Abruña H D, White J, Gordon J G II, Borges G L, Samant M G and Melroy O R 1986 J. Chem. Phys. 85 6732CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Melroy O R, Samant M G, Borges G L, Gordon J G II, White J H, Albarelli M J, McMillan M and Abruña H D 1988 Langmuir 4 728CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Tadjeddine A, Guay D, Ladouceur M and Tourillon G 1991 Phys. Rev. Lett. 66 2235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Toney M F, Howard J N, Richer J, Borges G L, Gordon J G II and Melroy O R 1995 Phys. Rev. Lett. 75 4472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Nakamura M, Endo O, Ohta T, Ito M and Yoda Y 2002 Surf. Sci. 514 227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Nakamura M, Matsunaga K, Kitahara K, Ito M and Sakata O 2003 J. Electroanal. Chem. 554–555 175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Parry D B, Samant M G, Seki H, Philpott M R and Ashley K 1993 Langmuir 9 1878CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Futamata M 2001 Chem. Phys. Lett. 333 337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ito M and Nakamura M 2002 Faraday Discuss. 121 71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Zhang J, Sung Y-E, Rikvold P A and Wieckowski A 1996 J. Chem. Phys. 104 5699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Magnussen O M, Hotlos J, Nichols R J, Kolb D M and Behm R J 1990 Phys. Rev. Lett. 64 2929CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Magnussen O M, Hotlos J, Beitel G, Kolb D M and Behm R J 1991 J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B9 969Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hachiya T, Honbo H and Itaya K 1991 J. Electroanal. Chem. 315 275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Haiss W, Lackey D, Sass J K, Meyer H and Nichols R J 1992 Chem. Phys. Lett. 200 343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Batina N, Will T and Kolb D M 1992 Faraday Discuss. 94 93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Will T, Dietterle M and Kolb D M 1995 In Nanoscale probes of solid/liquid interfaces (eds) A A Gewirth and H Siegenthaler (Kluwer, Dordrecht: NATO ASI) Series E, 288 137Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Xia X H, Nagle L, Schuster R, Magnussen O M and Behm R J 2000 Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2 4387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Nagy G and Wandlowski T 2003 Z. Phys. Chem. 217 587Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Nagy G and Wandlowski T 2003 Langmuir 19 10271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Vasiljevic N, Viyannalage L T, Dimitrov N and Sieradzki K 2008 J. Electroanal. Chem. 613 118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Manne S, Hansma P K, Massie J, Elings V B and Gewirth A A 1991 Science 251 183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Ikemiya N, Miyaoka S and Hara S. 1994 Surf. Sci. 311 L641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Legault M, Blum L and Huckaby D A 1996 J. Electroanal. Chem. 409 79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Rikvold P A, Zhang J, Sung Y E and Wieckowski A 1996 Electrochim. Acta 41 2175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Brown G, Rikvold P A, Novotny M A and Wieckowski A 1999 J. Electrochem. Soc. 146 1035CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Sánchez C and Leiva E P M 1999 Electrochim. Acta 45 691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Medved’ I and Huckaby D A 2003 J. Chem. Phys. 118 11147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Sudha V and Sangaranarayanan M V 2005 J. Chem. Sci. 117 207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Medved’ I 2008 J. Chem. Phys. 129 124701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Shi Z, Wu S and Lipkowski J 1995 J. Electroanal. Chem. 384 171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Wu S, Shi Z, Lipkowski J, Hitchcock A P and Tyliszczak T 1997 J. Phys. Chem. B101 10310Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Krznarić D and Goričnik T 2001 Langmuir 17 4347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Michaelis R 1991 Ph D thesis, Freie Universität, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Matsumoto H, Oda I, Inukai J and Ito M 1993 J. Electroanal. Chem. 356 275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Matsumoto H, Inukai J and Ito M 1994 J. Electroanal. Chem. 379 223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Hotlos J, Magnussen O M and Behm R J 1995 Surf. Sci. 335 129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Retter U 1978 J. Electroanal. Chem. 87 181CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemistry and BiochemistryUniversity of BernBernSwitzerland
  2. 2.Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems IBN 3 and Center of Nanoelectronic Systems for Informational TechnologyResearch Center JülichJülichGermany
  3. 3.European CommissionBruxellesBelgium

Personalised recommendations