Rapid burst of ethylene evolution by premature seed: A warning sign for the onset of spongy tissue disorder in Alphonso mango fruit?
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Moisture stress induced in premature seeds due to the breakdown of funiculus in Alphonso mango led to the burst of ethylene evolution, which in turn caused a sudden increase of polyphenol oxidase activity in the pulp, resulting in the development of a black spot near the seed base. Reduced levels of very long chain fatty acids in 70% mature seeds with black spots were associated with a sudden increase of cytokinins followed by a rapid rise of starch-metabolizing enzymes culminating in the onset of pre-germination events. Concurrently, an overproduction of p-OH benzoic acid inhibited amylase and polygalacturonase enzymes and led to partial degradation of the stored starch and pectin in the pulp. A parallel drop in climacteric ethylene production by the pulp led to incomplete ripening coupled with changes in composition, texture and aroma of the pulp, characteristic of spongy tissue. The results have provided strong experimental evidence to support the fact that increased competition for resources among developing fruits for the synthesis of seed fat plays a critical role in spongy tissue formation in Alphonso mango. The major highlight of the study is that rapid ethylene evolution by premature seed is an early warning sign for the initiation of spongy tissue formation in Alphonso mango.
KeywordsAlphonso mango ethylene burst physiological disorder premature seed spongy tissue VLCFAs
We are thankful to the Director, ICAR-IIHR, Bengaluru, for providing facilities for the work. The help rendered by Dr K K Upreti, Principal Scientist, Division of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, in the analysis of plant growth hormones and Mr T K Roy, Chief Technical Officer in the separation of fatty acids by GCMS are gratefully acknowledged.
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