Journal of Biosciences

, 44:105 | Cite as

Biosensor design using an electroactive label-based aptamer to detect bisphenol A in serum samples

  • Maryam Nazari
  • Soheila KashanianEmail author
  • Ronak Rafipour
  • Kobra Omidfar


A new and simple procedure was applied to detect bisphenol A (BPA) based on a BPA aptamer and its complementary strand (Comp. Str.). An electrode was modified with a mixture of carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes and chitosan. The Comp. Str. was immobilized on a modified-glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surface via covalent binding. After the incubation of the aptamer with the electrode surface, it could interact with the Comp. Str. In the presence of BPA, its aptamer will interact with the analyte, resulting in some changes in the configuration and leading to separation from the electrode surface. Due to the attached ferrocene (Fc) group on the 5′ head of the aptamer, the redox current of Fc has reduced. This aptasensor can sense the level of BPA in the linear range of 0.2–2 nM, with a limit of detection of 0.38 nM and a sensitivity of 24.51 μA/nM. The proposed aptasensor showed great reliability and selectivity. The acceptable selectivity is due to the specificity of BPA binding to its aptamer. The serum sample was used as a real sample; the aptasensor was able to effectively recover the spiked BPA amounts. It can on-site monitor the BPA in serum samples with acceptable recoveries.


Aptasensor bisphenol A chitosan ferrocene multiwalled carbon nanotubes 



  1. Baghayeri M, Ansari R, Nodehi M, Razavipanah I and Veisi H 2018 Voltammetric aptasensor for bisphenol A based on the use of a MWCNT/Fe3O4@gold nanocomposite. Microchim. Acta 185 320–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bard A and Faulkner L 1980 Electrochemical methods fundamentals and applications (New York: Wiley)Google Scholar
  3. Beiranvand S and Azadbakht A 2017 Electrochemical switching with a DNA aptamer-based electrochemical sensor. Mater. Sci. Eng. C 76 925–933CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beiranvand ZS, Abbasi AR, Dehdashtian S, Karimi Z and Azadbakht A 2017 Aptamer-based electrochemical biosensor by using Au–Pt nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes and acriflavine platform. Anal. Biochem. 518 35–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cao W, Chao Y, Liu L, Liu Q and Pei M 2014 Flow injection chemiluminescence sensor based on magnetic oil-based surface molecularly imprinted nanoparticles for determination of bisphenol A. Sens. Actuators B 204 704–709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cunha S, Pena A and Fernandes J 2015 Dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction followed by microwave-assisted silylation and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis for simultaneous trace quantification of bisphenol A and 13 ultraviolet filters in wastewaters. J. Chromatogr. A 1414 10–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Darmostuk M, Rimpelova S, Gbelcova H and Ruml T 2015 Current approaches in SELEX: an update to aptamer selection technology. Biotechnol. Adv. 33 1141–1161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Deiminiat B, Rounaghi GH, Arbab-Zavar MH and Razavipanah I 2017 A novel electrochemical aptasensor based on f-MWCNTs/AuNPs nanocomposite for label-free detection of bisphenol A. Sens. Actuators B 242 158–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) 2015 Scientific opinion on the risks to public health related to the presence of bisphenol A (BPA) in foodstuffs: executive summary. EFSA J. 13 3978–5018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Farajzadeh MA, Abbaspour M, Mogaddam MRA and Ghorbanpour H 2015 Determination of some synthetic phenolic antioxidants and bisphenol A in honey using dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction followed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection. Food Anal. Methods 8 2035–2043CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Feng J, Xu L, Cui G, Wu X, Ma W, Kuang H and Xu C 2016 Building SERS-active heteroassemblies for ultrasensitive bisphenol A detection. Biosens. Bioelectron. 81 138–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Filippou O, Deliyanni EA and Samanidou VF 2017 Fabrication and evaluation of magnetic activated carbon as adsorbent for ultrasonic assisted magnetic solid phase dispersive extraction of bisphenol A from milk prior to high performance liquid chromatographic analysis with ultraviolet detection. J. Chromatogr. A 1479 20–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Goulart LA, de Moraes FC and Mascaro H 2016 Influence of the different carbon nanotubes on the development of electrochemical sensors for bisphenol A. Mater. Sci. Eng. C 58 768–773CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. He B-S and Yan S 2018 Electrochemical aptasensor based on aptamer-complimentary strand conjugate and thionine for sensitive detection of tetracycline with multiwalled carbon nanotubes and gold nanoparticles amplification. Anal. Methods 10 783–790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. He M-Q, Wang K, Wang J, Yu Y-L and He R-H 2017 A sensitive aptasensor based on molybdenum carbide nanotubes and label-free aptamer for detection of bisphenol A. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 409 1797–1803CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Huang J, Zhang X, Lin Q, He X, Xing X, Huai H, Lian W and Zhu H 2011 Electrochemical sensor based on imprinted sol–gel and nanomaterials for sensitive determination of bisphenol A. Food Control 22 786–791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Huang R, Xi Z and He N 2015 Applications of aptamers for chemistry analysis, medicine and food security. Sci. China Chem. 58 1122–1130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jo M, Ahn J-Y, Lee J, Lee S, Hong SW, Yoo J-W, Kang J, Dua P, Lee D-K and Hong S 2011 Development of single-stranded DNA aptamers for specific bisphenol A detection. Oligonucleotides 21 85–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kazane I, Gorgy K, Gondran C, Spinelli N, Zazoua A, Defrancq E and Cosnier S 2016 Highly sensitive bisphenol-A electrochemical aptasensor based on poly(pyrrole-nitrilotriacetic acid)-aptamer film. Anal. Chem. 88 7268–7273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kubo I, Kanamatsu T and Furutani S 2014 Microfluidic device for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and its application to bisphenol A sensing. Sens. Mater. 26 615–621Google Scholar
  21. Laviron E 1979 General expression of the linear potential sweep voltammogram in the case of diffusionless electrochemical systems. J. Electroanal. Chem. Interfacial Electrochem. 10 19–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Liu G, Chen Z, Jiang X, Feng D-Q, Zhao J, Fan D and Wang W 2016 In-situ hydrothermal synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymers coated carbon dots for fluorescent detection of bisphenol A. Sens. Actuators B 228 302–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lv E, Ding J and Qin W 2018 Potentiometric aptasensing of small molecules based on surface charge change. Sens. Actuators B 259 463–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ma Y, Liu J and Li H 2017 Diamond-based electrochemical aptasensor realizing a femtomolar detection limit of bisphenol A. Biosens. Bioelectron. 92 21–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Maiolini E, Ferri E, Pitasi AL, Montoya A, Di Giovanni M, Errani E and Girotti S 2014 Bisphenol A determination in baby bottles by chemiluminescence enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, lateral flow immunoassay and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Analyst 139 318–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mei Z, Chu H, Chen W, Xue F, Liu J, Xu H, Zhang R and Zheng L 2013 Ultrasensitive one-step rapid visual detection of bisphenol A in water samples by label-free aptasensor. Biosens. Bioelectron. 39 26–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Miao W, Wei B, Yang R, Wu C, Lou D, Jiang W and Zhou Z 2014 Highly specific and sensitive detection of bisphenol A in water samples using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay employing a novel synthetic antigen. New J. Chem. 38 669–675CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Nazari M, Kashanian S and Rafipour R 2015 Laccase immobilization on the electrode surface to design a biosensor for the detection of phenolic compound such as catechol. Spectrochim. Acta Part A 145 130–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ohkuma H, Abe K, Ito M, Kokado A, Kambegawa A and Maeda M 2002 Development of a highly sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for bisphenol A in serum. Analyst 127 93–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Peng X, Kang L, Pang F, Li H, Luo R, Luo X and Sun F 2018 A signal-enhanced lateral flow strip biosensor for ultrasensitive and on-site detection of bisphenol A. Food Agric. Immunol. 29 1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Rafipour R, Kashanian S, Hashemi S, Omidfar K and Ezzati Nazhad Dolatabadi J 2017 Apoferritin-templated biosynthesis of manganese nanoparticles and investigation of direct electron transfer of MnNPs-HsAFr at modified glassy carbon electrode. Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem. 64 110–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rocha BA, da Costa BRB, de Albuquerque NCP, de Oliveira ARM, Souza JMO, Al-Tameemi M, Campiglia AD and Barbosa F Jr 2016 A fast method for bisphenol A and six analogues (S, F, Z, P, AF, AP) determination in urine samples based on dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Talanta 154 511–519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Salehi AS, Yang SO, Earl CC, Tang MJS, Hunt JP, Smith MT, Wood DW and Bundy BC 2018 Biosensing estrogenic endocrine disruptors in human blood and urine: A RAPID cell-free protein synthesis approach. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 345 19–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sekar TV, Foygel K, Massoud TF, Gambhir SS and Paulmurugan R 2016 A transgenic mouse model expressing an ERα folding biosensor reveals the effects of bisphenol A on estrogen receptor signaling. Sci. Rep. 6 34788CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sheikh IA, Tayubi IA, Ahmad E, Ganaie MA, Bajouh OS, AlBasri SF, Abdulkarim IM and Beg MA 2017 Computational insights into the molecular interactions of environmental xenoestrogens 4-tert-octylphenol, 4-nonylphenol, bisphenol A (BPA), and BPA metabolite, 4-methyl-2,4-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)pent-1-ene (MBP) with human sex hormone-binding globulin. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 135 284–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Steinmetz R, Brown NG, Allen DL, Bigsby RM and Ben-Jonathan N 1997 The environmental estrogen bisphenol A stimulates prolactin release in vitro and in vivo. Endocrinology 138 1780–1786CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. U. S. Food and Drug Administration 2014 Bisphenol A (BPA): use in food contact application, FDAGoogle Scholar
  38. Wang X, Reisberg S, Serradji N, Anquetin G, Pham M-C, Wu W, Dong C-Z and Piro B 2014 E-assay concept: detection of bisphenol A with a label-free electrochemical competitive immunoassay. Biosens. Bioelectron. 53 214–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Xue F, Wu J, Chu H, Mei Z, Ye Y, Liu J, Zhang R, Peng C, Zheng L and Chen W 2013 Electrochemical aptasensor for the determination of bisphenol A in drinking water. Microchim. Acta 180 109–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Yan K, Yang Y and Zhang J 2018 A self-powered sensor based on molecularly imprinted polymer-coupled graphitic carbon nitride photoanode for selective detection of bisphenol A. Sens. Actuators B 259 394–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Yang J, Kim S-E, Cho M, Yoo I-K, Choe W-S and Lee Y 2014 Highly sensitive and selective determination of bisphenol-A using peptide-modified gold electrode. Biosens. Bioelectron. 61 38–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Yu P, Liu Y, Zhang X, Zhou J, Xiong E, Li X and Chen J 2016 A novel electrochemical aptasensor for bisphenol A assay based on triple-signaling strategy. Biosens. Bioelectron. 79 22–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Zehani N, Fortgang P, Lachgar MS, Baraket A, Arab M, Dzyadevych SV, Kherrat R and Jaffrezic-Renault N 2015 Highly sensitive electrochemical biosensor for bisphenol A detection based on a diazonium-functionalized boron-doped diamond electrode modified with a multi-walled carbon nanotube-tyrosinase hybrid film. Biosens. Bioelectron. 74 830–835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Zhang D, Yang J, Ye J, Xu L, Xu H, Zhan S, Xia B and Wang L 2016 Colorimetric detection of bisphenol A based on unmodified aptamer and cationic polymer aggregated gold nanoparticles. Anal. Biochem. 499 51–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Zhou L, Wang J, Li D and Li Y 2014 An electrochemical aptasensor based on gold nanoparticles dotted graphene modified glassy carbon electrode for label-free detection of bisphenol A in milk samples. Food Chem. 162 34–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Zhou L, Jiang D, Du X, Chen D, Qian J, Liu Q, Hao N and Wang K 2016 Femtomolar sensitivity of bisphenol A photoelectrochemical aptasensor induced by visible light-driven TiO2 nanoparticle-decorated nitrogen-doped graphene. J. Mater. Chem. B 4 6249–6257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Zhu Y, Zhou C, Yan X, Yan Y and Wang Q 2015 Aptamer-functionalized nanoporous gold film for high-performance direct electrochemical detection of bisphenol A in human serum. Anal. Chim. Acta 883 81–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Zimmers SM, Browne EP, O’Keefe PW, Anderton DL, Kramer L, Reckhow DA and Arcaro KF 2014 Determination of free bisphenol A (BPA) concentrations in breast milk of US women using a sensitive LC/MS/MS method. Chemosphere 104 237–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maryam Nazari
    • 1
    • 2
  • Soheila Kashanian
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  • Ronak Rafipour
    • 5
  • Kobra Omidfar
    • 1
    • 6
  1. 1.Biosensor Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Molecular-Cellular Sciences InstituteTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Faculty of ChemistryRazi UniversityKermanshahIran
  3. 3.Faculty of Chemistry, Sensor and Biosensor Research Center (SBRC) & Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research Center (NNRC)Razi UniversityKermanshahIran
  4. 4.Nano Drug Delivery Research CenterKermanshah University of Medical ScienceKermanshahIran
  5. 5.Department of Chemistry, Kermanshah BranchIslamic Azad UniversityKermanshahIran
  6. 6.Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Research InstituteTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

Personalised recommendations