PM2.5 affects establishment of immune tolerance in newborn mice by reducing PD-L1 expression

  • Li Yan
  • Caihui Gong
  • Linyan Ying
  • Wenlong Fu
  • Sha Liu
  • Jihong DaiEmail author
  • Zhou FuEmail author


This study was conducted to determine whether exposure to particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) affects the immune tolerance of neonatal mice via the regulation of PD-L1 expression. One-week-old BALB/c mice were exposed to PM2.5 for 8 days. From day 8 to day 18, the mice were treated with 5 μg house dust mite (HDM) (i. n.) every two days. Adenovirus-carried PD-L1 overexpression vectors were infected into mice via nasal inhalation 6 days after exposure to PM2.5. Airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) was examined in mice 19 days after exposure to PM2.5, and the related parameters of airway inflammation were studied on day 22. Co-exposure to PM2.5 and HDM reduced PD-L1 expression but greatly increased infiltration of inflammatory cells, which was reversed by PD-L1 overexpression. Co-exposure to PM2.5 and HDM also elevated serum IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 levels and reduced TGF-β level. Exposure to PM2.5 alone slightly increased the numbers of dendritic cells (DCs) but reduced the numbers of antigen-presenting cells expressing PD-L1 and Treg cells. Therefore, early exposure to PM2.5 reduced PD-L1 expression in the lungs of neonatal mice, which interfered with immune tolerance establishment and subsequently resulted in allergic airway inflammation.


Airway inflammation immune tolerance PD-L1 PM2.5 



This study was supported by the Scientific and Technical Research Project of Chongqing Education Commission (Grant No.: KJ1600206, 2016).


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Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Respiration CenterChildren’s Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and DisordersChongqingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.China International Science and Technology Cooperation Base of Child Development and Critical DisordersChongqingPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Chongqing Key Laboratory of PediatricsChongqingPeople’s Republic of China

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