Characterization and DNA methylation modulatory activity of gold nanoparticles synthesized by Pseudoalteromonas strain
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Marine extremophiles are shown to tolerate extreme environmental conditions and have high metal reducing properties. Here, we report intracellular synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) by marine extremophilic bacteria Pseudoalteromonas sp. Bac178 which was isolated from the OMZ of Arabian Sea. Preliminary observations suggest that these bacteria use different pathways which may involves the membrane as well as intracellular proteins for the gold salt reduction. Characterization of the biosynthesised nanoparticles by various techniques such as Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) confirmed the presence of crystalline gold. These biologically synthesized AuNP were investigated for cytotoxicity and oxidative stress generation in human normal fibroblast and melanoma cells (A375). As AuNP are envisaged to find many applications in the medical field, it was of interest to study the effect of AuNP at the epigenetic level. They were found to be non-cytotoxic, non-genotoxic and non-oxidative stress generating over a range of concentrations. Exposure to these AuNP is observed to cause alterations in global DNA methylation as well as in the expression of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) genes. Since biosynthesized AuNP are being used in various applications and therapies, their epigenetic modulatory activity needs careful consideration.
KeywordsDNA methylation DNMT epigenetics gold nanoparticles oxygen minimum zone
This work was funded by Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES), Government of India (Grant No. GOI-687), under the Microbial Oceanography scheme. The funding agency had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
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