Journal of Biosciences

, Volume 32, Issue 4, pp 763–768 | Cite as

Cytological evidence for population-specific sex chromosome heteromorphism in Palaearctic green toads (Amphibia, Anura)

  • G. Odierna
  • G. Aprea
  • T. Capriglione
  • S. Castellano
  • E. Balletto


A chromosome study was carried out on a number of European and Central Asiatic diploid green toad populations by means of standard and various other chromosome banding and staining methods (Ag-NOR-, Q-, CMA3-, late replicating [LR] banding pattern, C- and sequential C-banding + CMA3 + DAPI). This study revealed the remarkable karyological uniformity of specimens from all populations, with the only exception being specimens from a Moldavian population, where one chromosome pair was heteromorphic. Though similar in shape, size and with an identical heterochromatin distribution, the difference in the heteromorphic pair was due to a large inverted segment on its long arms. This heteromorphism was restricted to females, suggesting a female heterogametic sex chromosome system of ZZ/ZW type at a very early step of differentiation.


Sex chromosome differentiation inversion heteromorphism green toads Bufo viridis complex Anura 


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Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Odierna
    • 1
  • G. Aprea
    • 1
  • T. Capriglione
    • 2
  • S. Castellano
    • 3
  • E. Balletto
    • 3
  1. 1.Dipartimento di Biologia Strutturale e FunzionaleUniversità di Napoli Federico IINaplesItaly
  2. 2.Dipartimento di Scienze BiologicheUniversità di Napoli Federico IINaplesItaly
  3. 3.Dipartimento di Biologia Animale e dell’UomoUniversità di TorinoTurinItaly

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