The Role of Xenobiotics and Trace Metals in Parkinson’s Disease

  • Geir BjørklundEmail author
  • Maryam Dadar
  • Salvatore Chirumbolo
  • Jan Aaseth


Research on the etiopathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD) has in the very recent years earned many insightful cues about the involvement of xenobiotics and metal pollutants in the onset and exacerbation of this neurodegenerative disorder. Furthermore, particularly for metal pollutants, the hypothesis about the role exerted by impaired mitochondrial function is gaining a leading causative role. In this review, we outline the role of environmental pollution in the pathogenesis of PD, as the prolonged exposure to xenobiotics may account for the majority of PD reported cases, expanding the debate also about some suggested therapeutic approaches.


Substantia nigra Dopamine Alpha-synuclein Iron Manganese Oxidative stress Chelating agents 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Council for Nutritional and Environmental Medicine (CONEM)Mo i RanaNorway
  2. 2.Razi Vaccine and Serum Research InstituteAgricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO)KarajIran
  3. 3.Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine and Movement SciencesUniversity of VeronaVeronaItaly
  4. 4.CONEM Scientific SecretaryVeronaItaly
  5. 5.Research DepartmentInnlandet Hospital TrustBrumunddalNorway
  6. 6.IM Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University)MoscowRussia

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