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Molecular Neurobiology

, Volume 56, Issue 7, pp 4751–4759 | Cite as

Immune Aberrations in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

  • Theodore D. Cosco
  • Toby Pillinger
  • Hadeer Emam
  • Marco Solmi
  • Sanjay Budhdeo
  • A. Matthew Prina
  • Michael Maes
  • Dan J. Stein
  • Brendon Stubbs
  • Andre F. CarvalhoEmail author
Article

Abstract

Some lines of evidence have indicated that immune dysregulation could play a role in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, results have been inconsistent across studies. Thus, a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies measuring immune mediators in participants with OCD compared to healthy controls (HC) was conducted. The PubMed/MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and EMBASE electronic databases were systematically searched from inception through June 21, 2018. Sixteen studies met inclusion criteria comprising data from 1001 participants (538 with OCD and 463 were HCs). Levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-10, and interferon-γ did not significantly differ between participants with OCD and healthy controls. In addition, the ex vivo production of TNF-α and IL-6 by isolated macrophages did not significantly differ between participants with OCD and HCs. Nevertheless, included studies have varied in methodological quality with the enrollment of samples that differed regarding medication status, the proper matching of OCD participants and HCs, age groups, and the presence of psychiatric comorbidities. In conclusion, an association between immune dysregulation and OCD remains unproven. Future studies should consider enrolling larger and more homogeneous samples with OCD.

Keywords

Obsessive-compulsive disorder Meta-analysis Review Cytokines Chemokines Inflammation 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

DJS is supported by the Medical Research Council of South Africa and has received research grants and/or consultancy honoraria from Abbott, Astrazeneca, Eli-Lilly, GlaxoSmithKline, Jazz Pharmaceuticals, Johnson & Johnson, Lundbeck, Orion, Pfizer, Pharmacia, Roche, Servier, Solvay, Sumitomo, Takeda, Tikvah, and Wyeth. The other authors declare no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

12035_2018_1409_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (31 kb)
ESM 1 (XLSX 31 kb)
12035_2018_1409_MOESM2_ESM.docx (80 kb)
ESM 2 (DOCX 79 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Theodore D. Cosco
    • 1
    • 2
  • Toby Pillinger
    • 3
  • Hadeer Emam
    • 4
  • Marco Solmi
    • 5
    • 6
  • Sanjay Budhdeo
    • 7
    • 8
  • A. Matthew Prina
    • 9
  • Michael Maes
    • 10
    • 11
  • Dan J. Stein
    • 12
  • Brendon Stubbs
    • 13
    • 14
    • 15
  • Andre F. Carvalho
    • 16
    • 17
    • 18
    Email author
  1. 1.Gerontology Research CenterSimon Fraser UniversityVancouverCanada
  2. 2.Oxford Institute of Population AgeingUniversity of OxfordOxfordUK
  3. 3.Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and NeuroscienceKing’s College LondonLondonUK
  4. 4.Olin Neuropsychiatry Research CenterInstitute of LivingHartfordUSA
  5. 5.Neurosciences DepartmentUniversity of PaduaPaduaItaly
  6. 6.Padova Neuroscience CenterUniversity of PaduaPaduaItaly
  7. 7.National Hospital for Neurology and NeurosurgeryLondonUK
  8. 8.Institute of NeurologyUniversity College LondonLondonUK
  9. 9.Health Service and Population Research Department, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & NeuroscienceKing’s College LondonLondonUK
  10. 10.Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of MedicineChulalongkorn UniversityBangkokThailand
  11. 11.IMPACT Strategic Research CenterDeakin UniversityGeelongAustralia
  12. 12.Department of Psychiatry and MRC Unit on Risk and Resilience in Mental Disorders, Faculty of Health SciencesUniversity of Cape Town and Groote Schuur HospitalCape TownSouth Africa
  13. 13.Physiotherapy DepartmentSouth London and Maudsley NHS Foundation TrustLondonUK
  14. 14.Department of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and NeuroscienceKing’s College LondonLondonUK
  15. 15.Faculty of Health, Social Care and EducationAnglia Ruskin UniversityChelmsfordUK
  16. 16.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  17. 17.Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH)TorontoCanada
  18. 18.Faculty of MedicineUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada

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