Molecular Neurobiology

, Volume 54, Issue 6, pp 4271–4291 | Cite as

Nitrosative Stress, Hypernitrosylation, and Autoimmune Responses to Nitrosylated Proteins: New Pathways in Neuroprogressive Disorders Including Depression and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

  • Gerwyn Morris
  • Michael Berk
  • Hans Klein
  • Ken Walder
  • Piotr Galecki
  • Michael MaesEmail author


Nitric oxide plays an indispensable role in modulating cellular signaling and redox pathways. This role is mainly effected by the readily reversible nitrosylation of selective protein cysteine thiols. The reversibility and sophistication of this signaling system is enabled and regulated by a number of enzymes which form part of the thioredoxin, glutathione, and pyridoxine antioxidant systems. Increases in nitric oxide levels initially lead to a defensive increase in the number of nitrosylated proteins in an effort to preserve their function. However, in an environment of chronic oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS), nitrosylation of crucial cysteine groups within key enzymes of the thioredoxin, glutathione, and pyridoxine systems leads to their inactivation thereby disabling denitrosylation and transnitrosylation and subsequently a state described as “hypernitrosylation.” This state leads to the development of pathology in multiple domains such as the inhibition of enzymes of the electron transport chain, decreased mitochondrial function, and altered conformation of proteins and amino acids leading to loss of immune tolerance and development of autoimmunity. Hypernitrosylation also leads to altered function or inactivation of proteins involved in the regulation of apoptosis, autophagy, proteomic degradation, transcription factor activity, immune-inflammatory pathways, energy production, and neural function and survival. Hypernitrosylation, as a consequence of chronically elevated O&NS and activated immune-inflammatory pathways, can explain many characteristic abnormalities observed in neuroprogressive disease including major depression and chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis. In those disorders, increased bacterial translocation may drive hypernitrosylation and autoimmune responses against nitrosylated proteins.


Nitric oxide Nitrosative stress Cytokines Immune Leaky gut Depression Myalgic encephalomyelitis 



The authors would like to express their thanks to Victoria Storey for her invaluable secretarial services.

Authors’ Contributions

GM and MM participated in the design of this review, while all the other authors helped to draft the paper. All authors read and approved the final version.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


No specific funding was obtained for this specific review. MB is supported by a NHMRC Senior Principal Research Fellowship 1059660.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerwyn Morris
    • 1
  • Michael Berk
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Hans Klein
    • 6
  • Ken Walder
    • 7
  • Piotr Galecki
    • 8
  • Michael Maes
    • 9
    • 10
    • 11
    • 12
    • 13
    Email author
  1. 1.Tir Na NogLlanelliUK
  2. 2.IMPACT Strategic Research Centre, School of MedicineDeakin UniversityGeelongAustralia
  3. 3.Orygen Youth Health Research Centre and the Centre of Youth Mental HealthParkvilleAustralia
  4. 4.The Florey Institute for Neuroscience and Mental HealthUniversity of MelbourneParkvilleAustralia
  5. 5.Department of Psychiatry, Royal Melbourne HospitalUniversity of MelbourneParkvilleAustralia
  6. 6.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of Groningen, UMCGGroningenThe Netherlands
  7. 7.Metabolic Research Unit, School of MedicineDeakin UniversityWaurn PondsAustralia
  8. 8.Department of Adult PsychiatryMedical University of LodzŁódźPoland
  9. 9.Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of MedicineChulalongkorn UniversityBangkokThailand
  10. 10.Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of MedicineState University of LondrinaLondrinaBrazil
  11. 11.Department of PsychiatryMedical University PlovdivPlovdivBulgaria
  12. 12.RevitalisWaalreThe Netherlands
  13. 13.IMPACT Strategic Research Center, Barwon HealthDeakin UniversityGeelongAustralia

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